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Braches Aspect| Perennialism| Essentialism| Progressivism| Reconstructivism| Existentialism| School of thought| Traditional| Traditional| Modern| Modern| Modern| Influenced by| Opinion due to materialism and pragmatism.| Idealism and realism| Naturalism and pragmatism| Educational philosophy| Based on Rousseaus’s naturalism and humanism.| Pioneer| * R. M. Hutching * Mortimer J. Alder * Jacques Maritain| * William C. Bagley * Thomas Briggs * Frederick Breed * Isac L. Kandel| Naturalism * Jean J. Rousseau * Heinrich Pestalozzi * Freidrich FroebelPragmatism * John Dewey * William H. Kilpatrik * Boyd H. Bode * Harold V. Rugg| * George S. Counts * Harold O. Rugg| * Carl Rogers| Focus| Emphasize the development of rationality of individuals.| Reformation and innovation school curriculum.| Stress that learning outcome of a person was influenced by surrounding.| Emphasize on discussion technique and use critical and creative thinking skills to solve problems.| Emphasize on the development of human qualities.| Aim of Education| * To discipline students mentally and spiritually, develop their potential in reasoning. * To foster moral behaviour, master learning materials, train students to master the 3R’s (reading, writing, arithmetic)| Teachers play a primary role. * To assist pupils to acquire the necessary skills and basic qualities of adulthood. * To adopt democratic leadership style, carry out their duties in teaching enthusiastically, create conducive atmosphere in teaching-learning activities. * Possess adequate academic qualification, emotional intelligence, and understand the psychological development of children and adolescence| Naturalism : * Environment influence the child’s future behaviour. * In order to produce well- rounded, self- reliant, free thinking citizens, the school authority should implement an education system based on the philosophy of...
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