December 6, 2012
Percent Yield of a Chemical Reaction
Yield is the quantity of product in a chemical reaction, the theoretical yield of a reaction can be calculated using mole ratios from the balanced chemical reaction. The actual yield has to be obtained and measured in a laboratory. It may be usual to often find the actual yield to be less than the theoretical yield due to many different factors. This gives rise to the concept of percent yield. Sodium bicarbonate and hydrochloric acid was used in the experiment. The yields of sodium chloride reaction were determined and then compare it to the theoretical yield. HCl(aq) + NaHCO3(s) -> NaCl(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(I)
Materials and Methods
In order to determine the percent yield of a reaction they will have to perform a series of instructions leading the students to the completion of the experiment. Weighted a clean dry 250-ml beaker, then add 2.5g of baking soda to the beaker this will be color white in form of powder, after the solution was added they accurately weighted the beaker again. Then they slowly added 10 to 15 ml of the hydrochloric solution some chose to either pour slowly or use a dropper to perform this task while making careful observations of the reaction that turned to be foaming spume with bubbles. After the students were certain that the reaction had completely stopped they added a couple of milliliters of the hydrochloric solution this was done to make sure that all the baking soda had completely reacted leaving the reaction in form of a clear liquid solution. Next they recovered the sodium chloride product. In order to recover it they used a burner by heating slowly in medium heat in order to avoid any spattering. The solution started to boil and the release of fumes could be observed at the top of the beaker. The evaporation took effect and completely turned the solution back to the form of white powder, allowing the students to fully obtain dry sodium...