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Black Pepper
Booklet No. 231
Condiments and Spices Production: CSPS - 6
I. Introduction
ll. Climate
III. Soil
IV. Varieties
V. Propagation
VI. Management after Planting
Vll. Manures and Fertilizers
VIII. Training and Pruning
IX. Irrigation
X. Insect pest Control
XI. Disease Control
XII. Harvesting. Processing and yield
XIII. Economics of Cultivation.


Black pepper is an important spice cultivated not only in India but also in soutl1 east Asia and Brazil. India ranks first in pepper production. It exports nearly a quarter of its production to the world market. In India it is widely cultivated in Kerala. It is used as flavouring agent for the food and also have a good medicinal value. This booklet gives all the details of pepper cultivation.

K. T. Chandy, Director, Agricultural & Environmental Education

I. Introduction

Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is the most widely used spice. It is dried small round berries of perennial evergreen climbing vine. It belongs the family Piperaceae. It is also known as "King of Spices" and is a native of the western ghat forests. Pepper is widely cultivated in Kerala and some parts of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. About 96 % of area and production of pepper is in Kerala. From here only, pepper was taken to other parts of the country, especially to some of the north-eastern states, Assam and adjoining Myanmar . Besides India. it is also cultivated in Indonesia, Malaysia. Brazil and Sri Lanka.

The present total world production of pepper is estimated about 1,40,000 tonnes. During 1981-82, India's share was 29,000 tonnes and this was further increased to 50,000 tonnes during 1989. India earns a foreign exchange of Rs. 240 crores by exporting pepper. Though India ranks first in the pepper production, only 30% of our production is supplied to the world market. The average pepper production is about 230 kg per hectare, where as Brazil produces...
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