“Assessment 1 2008/2009 Semester B”
Date: 20th March 2009
1. “Provide a brief definition of the concept of an organization.” An organisation is a social arrangement, construct, a body or unit composed of two or more persons to achieve a specific objective on a relatively continuous basis by means of planned and coordinated activities. People interact with each other in a particular way and form relationships with suppliers, customers, clients and the community. The objectives involve use of human resources and inanimate resources in order to accomplish the aims of an organisation and provide satisfaction for its people.
2. “Detail the principal distinctions between manufacturing and service organizations.” • In manufacturing organisation, the goods can be serviced while in service organisation goods can not be serviced. • In manufacturing goods can be transported to the point of sale while in service organisation it is the transportation of information or the service provider. • In manufacturing few producers deal with customer whereas in service most producers deal with customers • The producer/manufacturing has more chances of replacing damaged goods than the service organisation, replacement is difficult. • In manufacturing goods can be stored while in service organisation services can not be stored, otherwise they become perishable resulting in waste.
3. “If you had to provide a brief but accurate definition of the concept of work to an alien from another planet, what would you tell them?”
I would describe work as a complex entity, which comes in different forms. People’s concept of work is different and their manner of approach is different. The objective of work is satisfaction; because people want to satisfy their interest which can be materially or physically, these include food, money, rent and mortgage in exchange for labour. Some work for moral obligation, some work to achieve goals, some to exert their effort and some for psychological fulfilment.
4. “Describe how we understand the work of a manager to differ from that of a supervisor.” Manager’s work is about planning that is making developments in advance like the annual budget. Organising is focusing on what resources are needed to achieve the goals. Leading is getting employees to do what is required of them; managers should provide a path to get things done. Controlling is checking if measures are being taken while delegation is the assigning of work for division of labour. Managers are the figurehead of the organisation, they give authority and status while supervisor’s role is to provide on-going guidance, be mentors of the job, be advocates for the organisation and advocates for employees.
5. “Give two ways in which the political environment can impact upon how an organization operates.”
• Government ownership- changes in government results in changes in policy and attitudes towards foreign business. Organisations operate at the discretion of the government concerned. The government can encourage operation by offering opportunities for investment or can even discourage investment. A government can preserve certain sectors of the foreign market for enterprise or state trade. The stability of the government plays a part in the organisation’s operation.
• Trade policy- these include instruments like tariffs, quotas, voluntary export restrains and export subsidies. It imposes large burdens on the society. Trade policy is a device for income transfer to different groups and it is the designed by that country so as to yield pressure from groups of interest.
6. “Give two examples of how the nature of work was affected by the so-called Industrial Revolution.” • The way people relate themselves to their jobs has brought a social change • Work that was hand-made is...