Penicillin Production

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  • Topic: Penicillin, Penicillium, Fungus
  • Pages : 15 (5238 words )
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  • Published : April 23, 2011
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Here stated is the introduction for penicillin notatum which makes clear the reason for selecting this microorganism for this term paper .Species of Penicillium are ubiquitous saprobes, whose numerous conidia are easily distributed through the atmosphere and are common in soils. In soil analyses, using dilution plate techniques, Penicillium species are detected with high frequency (Domsch et al., 1993). However, very little is known of interactions between Penicillium species and other soil fungi, or even on plan growth. Penicillium species generally occurr at greater soil depths than species of other genera, and have low concentrations in rhizosphere soils (Domsch et al., 1993). Some species of Penicillium are well known for their activities to produce antibiotics (e.g. Penicillin), and therefore Penicillium sp. is one of the best researched genera, with regard to biochemistry. All strains of Penicillium so far tested are able to solubilize metaphosphates and utilize them as phosphorus sources (Picci, 1965). Many species have been shown to contain mycoviruses (Bozarth, 1972). There are some reports that Penicillium species can suppress root pathogens; Penicillium chrysogenum has been reported to be able to control Verticillium wilt of tomato, when roots are dipped in a spore suspension before planting (Dutta, 1981). Penicillium notatum has also been reported to inhibit and reduce the number of rust pustules in wheat caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritid (Mishra and Tiwari, 1976). Little is also known about plant growth stimulants produced by Penicillium spp. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate whether P. notatum (KMITL 99) can promote plant growth of Chinese mustard (Brassica campestris var. chinensis), Chinese radish (Raphanus sativas var. longipinnatus) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus). The optimum concentration of spore suspensions for promotion of plant growth was also investigated.

2. Industrial importance:
In industrial fermentations, Penicillium chrysogenum uses sulfate as the source of sulfur for the biosynthesis of penicillin. By a PCR-based approach, two genes, sutA and sutB, whose encoded products belong to the SulP superfamily of sulfate permeases were isolated. Transformation of a sulfate uptake-negative sB3 mutant of Aspergillus nidulans with the sutB gene completely restored sulfate uptake activity. The sutA gene did not complement theA. nidulans sB3 mutation, even when expressed under control of the sutBpromoter. Expression of both sutA and sutB in P. chrysogenum is induced by growth under sulfur starvation conditions. However, sutA is expressed to a much lower level than is sutB. Disruption of sutB resulted in a loss of sulfate uptake ability. Overall, the results show that SutB is the major sulfate permease involved in sulfate uptake by P. chrysogenum. Filamentous fungi are saprophytic organisms secreting a wide array and high level of proteins involved in the breakdownand recycling of complex polymers from both plants andanimal tissues. These characteristics and the existence of a well-established technology for large-scale fermentation of these organisms advanced their industrial application in secretion of heterologous proteins. Species of Aspergillus and Trichoderma have been extensively used as model organisms for diverse transformation and expression systems. Although Penicillium chrysogenum is of significant industrial importance and has the “generally recognized as safe” status of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, only preliminary attempts have been made to utilize this fungus as a host for homologous and heterologous protein production and secretion. One of the major reasons might be that in contrast to Aspergillus and Trichoderma, no suitable promoter system for P. chrysogenum has been available so far. 3.1 PENICILLIN AND CEPHALOSPORIN BIOSYNTHESIS

Once some physiological characteristics of both P. chrysogenum and A....
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