This unusual bird stands on short legs and walks with a clumsy waddle. These birds cannot fly which is how they got to be called Penguins, which means flightless. All species of penguins have short-bodies and necks. They also all have short thick feathers, which form a kind of waterproof coat. Most penguins' feathers have feathers that are just white on the stomach and are black and blue on the back. Some have patches of brightly colored feathers on their necks. Theses birds keep warm from the harsh Antarctic conditions by thick layers of fat on their bodies. Their wings developed into flippers, which serve as paddles to help propel them in the water. They also have webbed feet which when combined with the flippers make them excellent swimmers and divers.
The species are divided into four groups for easy identification. The groups are as follows, I. "Large, with orange or yellow patches on the sides of the upper neck (Species 1-2). II. Medium-sized, crested with orange or yellow lines on each side of the crown above the eyes (Species 3-8). III. Medium-sized, with no crest or yellow colour on the head, but usually with stripes of white or black on the head or breast (Species 9-14). IV. Small, with out crest or yellow colouring on heads (Species 15-17)" (Alexander 148). An example of each is as follows: Group I, the Emperor penguin. Group II, the Royal penguin. Group III, Adelie penguin and Group IV, the Whit-filppered penguin.
The Emperor penguin is the largest penguin with the most southern range. The top of the head, chin, cheeks and... [continues]
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