Theory: The relationship between two physical quantities can be determined by graphical means. For a simple pendulum, the relationship between periodic time and length is given by the equation
Where, T is the periodic time, 1 is the length of the pendulum string and g is acceleration due to gravity A graph of periodic time against length should be of the shape shown.
Hypothesis: That the shorter you create the pendulum string, the shorter the time difference for a swing.
Method:
1.Attach the pendulum bob to the string and suspend from the clamp stand so that the string is 100cm in length. 2.Set the pendulum swinging by displacing the bob through a small angle. 3.Time 20 swings of the pendulum. Record the data.
4.Repeat step 3 twice more recording the data each time.
5.Repeat steps 1 4 for different string lengths.
Analysis:
The shape of Graph 1 suggests that the relationship between time and length is: T√1
This relationship is confirmed in Graph 2, where by finding the square root of the length creates a straightline graph for which we can confirm the mathematical equation in the theory section.
The gradient of the...
...Symbolic Rescue
On the surface, Edgar Allan Poe’s “The Pit and the Pendulum” relates the story of a man tortured by the Spanish Inquisition. The unknown narrator loses all consciousness when he finds out that he is to be sentenced to death. When he awakes to darkness confusion overwhelms him for he does not know what is to happen to him. After passing out several more times he starts searching his prison cell in the darkness and soon discovers that there is a deep circular pit filled with water in the center of the cave. He falls asleep once more before he opens his eyes and notices that the cave is now dimly lit and that he has been bound to a wooden board. He looks up to find that a swinging pendulum is now suspending from the ceiling as a mass of rats advance towards him in search of meat. After overcoming this pendulum as well as rats, enclosed walls of heat draw him to the edge of the pit. Just as his unconscious body descends towards the pit a mysterious figure comes to his rescue and snatches him from the depths of the hole. In this short story the narrator, who is sentenced to death, is miraculously saved from a near death experience by General Lasalle. On a symbolic level, “The Pit and the Pendulum” relates the story of a man who dies, almost loses his soul to hell, and finds himself rescued at the end by god.
The narrator never actually experiences death but goes through a few important incidences that...
...EXPERIMENT 2 Measurement of g: Use of a simple pendulum
OBJECTIVE: To measure the acceleration due to gravity using a simple pendulum.
Textbook reference: pp1015
INTRODUCTION:
Many things in nature wiggle in a periodic fashion. That is, they vibrate. One such example is a simple pendulum. If we suspend a mass at the end of a piece of string, we have a simple pendulum. Here, the to and fro motion represents a periodic motion used in times past to control the motion of grandfather and cuckoo clocks. Such oscillatory motion is called simple harmonic motion. It was Galileo who first observed that the time a pendulum takes to swing back and forth through small distances depends only on the length of the pendulum The time of this to and fro motion, called the period, does not depend on the mass of the pendulum or on the size of the arc through which it swings. Another factor involved in the period of motion is, the acceleration due to gravity (g), which on the earth is 9.8 m/s2. It follows then that a long pendulum has a greater period than a shorter pendulum.
Before coming to lab, you should visit the following web site: http://www.myphysicslab.com/pendulum1.html This simulation shows a simple pendulum operating under gravity. For small oscillations the pendulum is linear, but it is...
...Is gravity always 9.8m/s2??
INTRODUCTION: A simple pendulum consists of a mass m swinging back and forth along a circular arc at the end of a string of negligible mass. A pendulum is a weight suspended from a pivot so that it can swing freely. Gravity is the pull that two bodies of mass exert on one another. There are several simple experiments that will allow you to calculate the acceleration due to gravity of a falling object. A simplependulum can determine this acceleration. The only variables in this experiment are the length of the pendulum (L) and the period of one full swing of the pendulum (T). In this case the independent variable represents the length of the string and the dependent variable represents the period of one oscillation. The control variable is the mass of the pendulum. In this lab our goal was to see if we can prove if the acceleration due to gravity is 9.8m/s2. The R2 in this lab is closed to 9.8 m/s2 . The formula that we used in this lab is T=2πLg and then we solved for g=L(T2π)2.
HYPOTHESIS: The gravity will be 9.81 m/s2 at sea level due to the acceleration.
PROCEDURE:
Materials: stopwatch, meter stick, support stand, string, mass (200g), rod clamp, protractor.
Safety: Be careful not to drop any of the heavy materials or to hit somebody near you by using them.
1. Set up the support stand on a flat surface.
2. Tie to...
...Physics Investigation: What factors affect the period of a pendulum?
By Tanya Waqanika
In this investigation, I will be looking at which factors affect the period (The time for one complete cycle, a left swing and a right swing) of a pendulum (a weight that dangles from a pivot so that it can swing freely). I will do this by tying a metal bob to a length of spring and dropping it from a certain height and measuring the time it takes to complete an oscillation, changing a variable for each of my preliminary investigations.
Independent Variable  Dependent Variable  Control Variables 
Length of String (continuous)  Period of the pendulum (continuous)  Diameter of Bob 
  Type of Bob 
  Angle bob dropped from 
  Person stopping stopwatch 
  Person dropping bob 
  Height Bob is dropped from 
Preliminary Investigations
Preliminary One: Length of Strong
Results Table
 Time of Period (seconds) 
Length of String  Trial 1  Trial 2  Trial 3  Ranges  Averages (mean) 
10cm  0.87  0.69  0.87  0.690.87  0.81 
20cm  1.01  1.02  1.01  1.011.02  1.01 
30cm  1.32  1.42  1.32  1.321.42  1.35 
40cm  1.66  1.71  1.66  1.661.71  1.68 
According to my graph, there is a positive correlation between the period of a pendulum...
...
The Ballistic Pendulum 
Determining the initial speed of a projectile 




THE BALLISTIC PENDULUM
ABSTRACT
The experiment was carried out to determine the initial speed of a projectile:
i) by means of a ballistic pendulum.
ii) by measurements of the range and vertical distance of fall during its flight.
The initial speed for the ballistic pendulum was found to be 5.0551±0.0008m/s and the initial speed for the pendulum was found to be 4.72±0.02 m/s.
INTRODUCTION:
i) Ballistic pendulum
A ball of mass m and velocity v₀ nets a pendulum bob of mass M. The total mass (M + m) acquires a velocity v₀ just after impact, and subsequently rises by a height h. Using the law of conversion of momentum, mv₀ = (M + m)v velocity v₀ (when neglecting friction) is given by:
v₀ = (M+mm)2gl (1cosθ
θ
θ
l  h
l  h
l
l
h
h
12mv2= mgh (by law of conversion of energy)
mv2= 2mgh cosθ= adjacenthypotenuse
v2= 2gh lcosθ=lhl*l
v=±2gh lcosθ=lh
llcosθ=h
l1cosθ=h
* h=l1cosθ
* v=±2gh
= ±2gl(1cosθ) ………..(1)
mv₀ = (M + m)v ……….(2)
Subtracting 1 into 2 we get:
mv₀ = (M + m) ± 2gl1cosθ
v₀ = (M+mm) ± 2gl (1cosθ
ii) Projectile
The projectile with initial horizontal velocity v₀ is projected in such a way that its vertical distance of fall is H and the range is R. The...
...UNIVERSITY OF TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO
Point Lisas Campus, Esperanza Road, Brechin Castle,
Couva, Trinidad, W.I.
Program: National Engineering Technician Diploma
Course code: ENSC 110D
Class: Petroleum
Lab Title: Pendulum with a yielding support
Instructor: Mrs. Sharon Mohammed
Full time
Name: Kirn Johnson
Student ID: 58605
Date: 28/10/2012
Title
A Pendulum with a yielding support
Table of Contents
1. Abstract
2. Objectives
3. Theory
4. Apparatus / Materials
5. Procedure / Method
6. Results / data
7. Analysis / Data
8. Conclusion
9. Reference
Abstract
Intent: To conduct an experiment to prove the yielding support distance is directly proportional to the period.
Results:
d(m)  Time for 20 Oscillations (s)  Time for 1 Oscillation T (s)  T2(s2)  d3(m2) x 103 
 1  2  3  Average    
0.24  31.50  31.47  31.44  31.47  1.57  2.46  13.8 
0.21  31.0  30.97  31.09  31.02  1.55  2.41  9.2 
0.l8  30.56  30.69  30.69 ...
...“The Swing” Analysis
Presentation
Date of Creation: 1767
Alternative Names: L'escarpolette
Height (cm): 81.00 Length (cm): 64.20
Medium: Oil
Support: Canvas
Subject: Scenery
Created by: JeanHonoré Fragonard
Current Location: London, United Kingdom
Displayed at: Wallace Collection
Owner: Wallace Collection
Basic Information
The image or painting I chose to analyze is called “The Swing” by JeanHonoré Fragonard and it was completed in London 1767. This particular piece I would consider being a “Scenery” type or a Rococo style and was done using oil paint on a canvas. It is currently being displayed within the “Wallace Collection” at London, the piece its self is of a young man hidden in the bushes, watching a woman on a swing, being pushed by her elderly husband, almost hidden in the shadows, and unaware of the lover. As the lady goes high on the swing, she lets the young man take a furtive peep under her dress; all while flicking her own shoe off in the direction of a Cupid and turning her back to two angelic cherubim on the side of her husband.
The Swing Analysis
Elements
Within this painting I find that there are four important line elements that help lead the viewer’s eyes to the three main subjects. The first two lines that are prominent within this painting is of the swing’s support ropes, they seem to form a triangle shape that seems to point to the hidden young man...
...How to Swing a Golf
Club
Step 1 Addressing the Ball
Approach the ball calm and comfortably.
Body over the ball, relax your arms and grip the club.
Step 2 Beginning the Swing
Start the club head back from the ball 3 feet.
Your body should stay in an aligned position, wrists and arms firm,
and a slight bend of your knees.
Move the club to waist high, keeping your lead arm straight, your
hips with a slight rotation away from the ball.
Step 3 The Backswing
Bring your club three quarters of the backswing.
The shaft of the club should be vertical, the club head above your
head.
Step 4 Finish of the Backswing
Take the club head the entire way back.
Your weight should be over your back foot, hips cocked back ready
to explode.
Step 5 Front swing
Move the club so that the shaft is a waist level, horizontal from the
body.
Your hips should be moving back toward the ball.
Your weight is still on the back foot but it is beginning to move
toward the lead foot.
Step 6 Impact With the Ball
Bring the club down to impact, your body weight transitioning back
to the lead foot.
Your hips and shoulders squaring up over the ball.
Step 7 The Finish
Move your club through the final part of the swing.
Your body weight should be entirely on your lead leg and your hips
continuing to rotate through the ball.
Complete the swing with the followthrough....