
Pendulum
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about pendulums. For other uses, see Pendulum (disambiguation). "Simple gravity pendulum" model assumes no friction or air resistance. An animation of a pendulum showing the velocity and acceleration vectors (v and a).  A pendulum is a weight suspended from a pivot so that it can swing freely.[1] When a pendulum is displaced from its restingequilibrium position, it is subject to a restoring force due to gravity that will accelerate it back toward the equilibrium position. When released, the restoring force combined with the pendulum's mass causes it to oscillate about the equilibrium position, swinging back and forth. The time for one complete cycle, a left swing and a right swing, is called the period. A pendulum swings with a specific period which depends (mainly) on its length. From its discovery around 1602 by Galileo Galilei the regular motion of pendulums was used for timekeeping, and was the world's most accurate timekeeping technology until the 1930s.[2] Pendulums are used to regulate pendulum clocks, and are used in scientific instruments such as accelerometers and seismometers. Historically they were used as gravimeters to measure the acceleration of gravity in geophysical surveys, and even as a standard of length. The word 'pendulum' is new Latin, from the Latin pendulus, meaning 'hanging'.[3] The simple gravity pendulum[4] is an idealized mathematical model of a pendulum.[5][6][7] This is a weight (or bob) on the end of a massless cord suspended from a pivot, without friction. When given an initial push, it will swing back and forth at a constantamplitude. Real pendulums are subject to friction and air drag, so the amplitude of their swings declines. The period of swing of a simple gravity pendulum depends on its length, the local strength of gravity, and to a small extent on the maximum angle that the pendulum swings away from...
...Pendulum
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Pendulum (disambiguation).
"Simple gravity pendulum" model assumes no friction or air resistance.
A pendulum is a weight suspended from a pivot so that it can swing freely.[1] When a pendulum is displaced sideways from its resting equilibrium position, it is subject to a restoring force due to gravity that will accelerate it back toward the equilibrium position. When released, the restoring force combined with the pendulum's mass causes it to oscillate about the equilibrium position, swinging back and forth. The time for one complete cycle, a left swing and a right swing, is called the period. The period depends on the length of the pendulum, and also to a slight degree on the amplitude, the width of the pendulum's swing.
From its examination in around 1602 by Galileo Galilei, the regular motion of pendulums was used for timekeeping, and was the world's most accurate timekeeping technology until the 1930s.[2] Pendulums are used to regulate pendulum clocks, and are used in scientific instruments such as accelerometers and seismometers. Historically they were used as gravimeters to measure the acceleration of gravity in geophysical surveys, and even as a standard of length. The word 'pendulum' is new Latin, from the Latin pendulus, meaning 'hanging'.[3]
The simple...
...Pendulum Lab
A pendulum is something hanging from a fixed point which, when force is applied, swings back, forth, up, and down due to gravity and inertia (Beynon 1). Pendulums can range in shape, size, and weight. An example of a pendulum can range from a swinging chandelier to a washer tied to some string and hung from the ceiling. Galileo was a famous scientist who studied pendulums. He discovered that the period, or time for one full swing, was always the same on a pendulum no matter what the weight on the end is or how wide the swing. He found that the only factor that affected the period was the length of the pendulum (Fleisher 1820). With this knowledge and some simple equations the acceleration of gravity on Earth can be found.
Materials
5 different pendulums with different lengths, stopwatch, meter stick
Procedure
Start each pendulum from approximately 10°
Let the pendulum go for 10 full swings
Time dhow long the 10 swings took and divide this time by 10 to get the period
Repeat this same procedure 3 times on 5 different pendulums.
With proper measurements and times a relative acceleration can be found for the gravity of Earth. Though calculations are difficult to be exact because of the effects of human error and air friction, they are relatively close to the accepted value of 9.8 m/s².
The...
...EXPERIMENT 2 Measurement of g: Use of a simple pendulum
OBJECTIVE: To measure the acceleration due to gravity using a simple pendulum.
Textbook reference: pp1015
INTRODUCTION:
Many things in nature wiggle in a periodic fashion. That is, they vibrate. One such example is a simple pendulum. If we suspend a mass at the end of a piece of string, we have a simple pendulum. Here, the to and fro motion represents a periodic motion used in times past to control the motion of grandfather and cuckoo clocks. Such oscillatory motion is called simple harmonic motion. It was Galileo who first observed that the time a pendulum takes to swing back and forth through small distances depends only on the length of the pendulum The time of this to and fro motion, called the period, does not depend on the mass of the pendulum or on the size of the arc through which it swings. Another factor involved in the period of motion is, the acceleration due to gravity (g), which on the earth is 9.8 m/s2. It follows then that a long pendulum has a greater period than a shorter pendulum.
Before coming to lab, you should visit the following web site: http://www.myphysicslab.com/pendulum1.html This simulation shows a simple pendulum operating under gravity. For small oscillations the pendulum is linear, but it is nonlinear for larger...
...investigation of the simple pendulum
2.0 Objectives
The purpose of the experiment is to investigate the time taken on the greatest possible precision of period of simple pendulum and the value of g, acceleration due to gravity and two different periods of both big and small simple pendulum’s oscillations.
3.0 Summary of Result
The results of the experiment have proven the acceleration due to gravity and the precision of period of simplependulum. Besides that, the length of the pendulum did influence the period and the period increased linearly with length. The results matched to within 11.00 %. Thus the experiments were all carried out successfully.
4.0 Theory
A simple pendulum consisting of a point mass m, tied to a string, length L. The period of a pendulum is also known as the time taken for the pendulum oscillates one complete cycle. To have a complete cycle, Figure 1 show the motion of pendulum when it is released. The bob will move from A to rest position to B to rest position again and lastly back to point A.
Figure 1
The starting angle, Ө is the maximum amplitude of the oscillations. The amplitude will decreases with time since the energy will losses. For small starting angle, Period of pendulum, T can be calculated by the formula below, with g as the acceleration
“T” becomes precise in the limit of zero...
...Course: Pendulum Measurements
Unit # 1 Lesson # 1
Does the Length of the Pendulum affect the number of swings ?
Materials:
• string ,tape ,washer
• Stop watch
• Meter stick, paper ,pencil
Introduction :
I am doing a study to find out if the length of a Pendulum will affect the number of swings. We usually see pendulums in Grandfather clocks. It is the weight that swings back and forth. I will be changing the length of the string ,but never the weight .
Hypothesis:
I am going to say, that while doing this experiment that as the length of the string decreases , the speed of the pendulum will increase.
Procedure:
1. Got my string and measured the lengths . I marked the string at 80c ,70cm, 60cm all the way to 30 cm. This makes it easier to keep working .
2. Find a table that has a hang over on the side. This way the pendulum can swing freely.
3. Tape the string to the top of the table. Tie a knot at the end of the string and place the washer in the knot.
4. Get someone to help you with the stop watch. Set it for one minute. Now, pull the string back at 10 cm and let go. Do not push the pendulum just let it go freely. Count the complete swings out and back makes one complete swing.
5. Write down the number of swings per minute.
6. Contiunue until you have reached the 30 cm mark .
Data:
The...
...CENTRIPETAL FORCE ON A PENDULUM
OBJECTIVE
To measure centripetal force exerted on a pendulum using the force sensor bob and in so doing compare this value determined by force calculations based on the height of the pendulum.
THEORY
Newton’s laws of motion are the basis for this experiment. Newton’s first law of motion states that a body in motion will remain in motion unless acted upon by an external force. Newton’s second law of motion states that the rate of momentum of a body is dependent on the product of its mass and acceleration. Where rate of change of momentum is given by
=
A pendulum bob follows a circular path and is therefore acted upon by centripetal force. In this experiment the tension in the string causes the bob to follow a circular path. From Newton’s second law of motion above it is related to the experiment as shown
= T mg =ma =
Where T is the tension in the string
m is the mass of the pendulum
g is acceleration due to gravity
is the centripetal force
The force measured by the force sensor when the pendulum passes through the lowest point of the swing is equal to centripetal force. This is because the force sensor is zeroed when the pendulum is at rest in its equilibrium position, where T= mg.
Centripetal force can also be found from the relationship below using the speed, v, when the bob passes through the lowest point
=...
...The Simple Pendulum
Objective and Background
Objective:
The Objective of this experiment is to examine the simple harmonic motion and to determine the value of the acceleration due to gravity from the analysis of the period of the simple pendulum. [1]
Background:
There are three equations that will be used to calculate the period of motion of the simple pendulum. They are the slope of the line of the graph of T² against L, and the gravity of the pendulum motion. The period of the motion is the time needed for one complete cycle that a pendulum bob swing from the initial position to the other end, and then back to the initial position. [1] The equation to calculate period is,
T = 2πLg
Where,
T = Period of the motion, measured in s.
L = Length of the pendulum, measured in cm.
g = Acceleration due to gravity, measured in m/s2.
The slope of the line in the graph of T² against L can be used to determine the gravity of the pendulum motion. It is because,
y = mx
m = T² L= 4π²g
m = Slope of the line in the graph T²/L.
Therefore, to find the gravity of the pendulum motion, we can use the slope of the graph.
The slope of the graph is given by the formula,
g = 4π²m
g = Acceleration due to gravity, measured in m/s².
Procedure and Observations
Materials:
* String
* Metre Stick
* Stop watch
* Stand
*...
...the period of a pendulum 
[Type the document subtitle] 

Kyle Butler 
3/1/2011 
[Type the abstract of the document here. The abstract is typically a short summary of the contents of the document. Type the abstract of the document here. The abstract is typically a short summary of the contents of the document.] 
The effect of mass, angle and length of string on the period of a pendulum
Abstract
The purpose of this lab was to prove the theoretical equation of a pendulum is T=2π(√L/g)and determine if any other factors affect the period of a pendulum. Our hypothesis was that an increase in mass would decrease the period, an increase in angle increase the period and an increase in length of string would increase the period. would a The materials that are needed for this experiment include a photo gate, stand, 10 bobs varying in weight, a role of string, scissors, tape, computer with program for photo gate, protractor, large chart paper, scale, a pencil and a piece of paper. The results produced data with only 6.85% error, we reduced error by using a photo gate and by attempting 3 trials for each set of identical variables and then averaged the results. After the experiment we determined that the period is independent from the mass, that angle may be weakly correlated and that further testing should be done to confirm this point. We also concluded that period is proportional to the square root...