REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter presents related foreign and local literature and studies. Related literature includes the writings of recognized experts; related studies include brief reviews on the topic. Related Literature
As we grow older, your peers actually helped shape your personality towards your strengths. you'll be faced with some challenging decisions. Some don't have a clear right or wrong answer. Other decisions involve serious moral questions, like whether to cut class, try cigarettes, or lie to your parents.
In an article by Manohar she said that making decisions on your own is hard enough, but when other people get involved and try to pressure you one way or another it can be even harder. Be it school, college or workplace - making friends is important, and so is socializing, but there are ways to forge new ties and mix up with people without being pressurized by the peers. Friends never make you lose your identity, making friends is about appreciating the differences and respecting individual tastes and still being together. Be comfortable with identity of who you are, and you will soon make new friends and be accepted by everyone. The effects of peer pressure can be prevented by simply teaching your child to be confident and comfortable in their own skin, without giving in such social influences. (Uttara Manohar)
A study in University of Nebraska the researchers found that more than 300 institutionalized juvenile delinquent boys found that they respond differently to peer pressure depending on their personality type. They were in training schools that use “Positive Peer Culture” programs, which employ peer pressure—often a negative force—to generate positive group and individual behavior. The delinquents who were more secure, outgoing and likeable responded best to peer pressure. They also responded well to the autonomy and responsibility given them by the staff. On the other hand, insecure delinquents, beset with anxiety and depression, were more deeply affected by friendly, caring, firm teachers and staff counselors.
Gold found that deeply insecure youngsters probably experienced a great deal of neglect and abuse as infants and in early childhood, so they are very concerned about how adults will treat them. Even as adolescents, the delinquents in our study wondered. (Martin Gold)
The researchers studied boys at four medium-security institutions in Michigan: the state-operated W.J. Maxey Boys Training School and the Adrian Training School; the private Starr Commonwealth School; and Boysville, a service of the Catholic Holy Cross Brothers. The researchers found that the more beset boys saw life through darker lenses. They were more mistrusting; had committed delinquent acts at an earlier age; were more likely not to have lived with parents; had much weaker ties with their primary care-givers, usually their mothers; and felt more hopeless about the future. Unlike the buoyant boys, the autonomy from the staff, which is built into the Positive Peer Culture program, did not have much impact on their adjustment in the institution or afterwards.
Peer pressure kills individuality and gives rise to a set of people who are merely clones of each other. Often what people don't realize is that although there exists the garb of a similar fashion or a similar trend that masks these clones, the actual faces behind these facades are unique. Loss of individuality can be the biggest setback anyone can suffer in his or her childhood. It is very important for children themselves to realize that it is never about fitting in a set mold of characters and skills, it is about being a part of the group and yet retaining your individuality - be it your clothes, your friends, or your thoughts. Peer pressure can happen to anybody. It doesn’t choose and pick a specific person, age or year. It can happen all the time. Peers can have a positive influence on each other. It may help you in doing...