Probability: Probability is used to determine the chance of an outcome occurring in any one trial. It is equal to the expected proportion of an outcome in a series of events. Example: Outcome: X-bearing or Y-bearing sperm Events: All sperm in an ejaculate Trial: Fertilization of a single egg Probability: 1/2 for X, 1/2 for Y

• Law of Independence: Applies if the occurrence of an outcome in one trial does not influence the probability of another outcome in a subsequent trial. Example: Given that a couple has had one boy, the probability that their next offspring is male is still 1/2.

• Multiplication Rule: The combined probability of two or more independent outcomes happening in two or more trials is the product of their individual probabilities. [a and b - multiply] Example: The probability of a couple having two boys in row is 1/2 x 1/2 = 1/4. • Addition Rule: The probability of two or more alternative outcomes happening in the same trial is the sum of their individual probabilities. [a or b - add] Example: The probability of a couple having either or boy or a girl is 1/2 + 1/2 = 1.

Waardenburg syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition that accounts for 1.4 percent of congenitally deaf persons. Given that a woman has Waardenburg syndrome (and is assumed to be a heterozygote) and a man is unaffected, what is the probability that none of their three children will be affected?

An unrelated man and woman both have a sibling affected with cystic fibrosis. The man and woman are phenotypically normal. Their parents are unaffected with CF, but are...

...Pedigree Analysis Activity
Pedigree charts are often constructed to show the inheritance of genetic conditions within a family. Such charts are a great help in determining whether a phenotype is controlled by a dominant, recessive or sex-linked allele. This activity will introduce you to autosomal pedigree charts.
Part I - Understanding the Pedigree
1. Table I shows the symbols needed in understanding a...

...Exercise 11
Aim: Preparation and analysis of Pedigree Charts
Principle: The Mendelian concept of dominance and segregation can also be studied in humans
by preparing and then analysing the pedigree charts. The internationally approved symbols for
indicating males and females, marriages, various generations (I, II, III), etc., are given below.
Requirement: Information about characters/traits in a family for more than one generation
Procedure
Select a...

...PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION
In the world of statistics, we are introduced to the concept of probability. On page 146 of our text, it defines probability as "a value between zero and one, inclusive, describing the relative possibility (chance or likelihood) an event will occur" (Lind, 2012). When we think about how much this concept pops up within our daily lives, we might be shocked to find the results. Oftentimes, we do not think in these terms, but...

...variable X is a weighted average of the possible values that the random variable can take. Unlike the sample mean of a group of observations, which gives each observation equal weight, the mean of a random variable weights each outcome xi according to its probability, pi. The mean also of a random variable provides the long-run average of the variable, or the expected average outcome over many observations.The common symbol for the mean (also known as the expected value of X)...

...QMT200
CHAPTER 3: PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION
3.1
RANDOM VARIABLES AND PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION
Random variables is a quantity resulting from an experiment that, by chance, can assume different values. Examples of random variables are the number of defective light bulbs produced during the week and the heights of the students is a class. Two types of random variables are discrete random variables and continuous random variable.
3.2
DISCRETE RANDOM...

...OBJECTIVE: Construct a pedigree for a family when given genotypes or phenotypes of the family members.
TASK INSTRUCTIONS: Prepare a three-page report in which you draw and analyze the pedigree of the following family.
Subject: affected woman
Subject's two brothers, unaffected
Subject's father affected, mother unaffected
Subject's paternal aunt and uncle, unaffected
Subject's paternal grandfather affected, grandmother unaffected
In your 3-page report, present...

...Chapter 1
The Problem and Its Background
Introduction
Changes are permanent thing on earth. Are the people is ready enough to accept the changes on the educational system? The current opening of classes here in the Philippines usually starts from June to March but our lawmakers want to amend the opening of classes. The existing school calendar which spans from June to March is often disrupted as destructive typhoons plague the region during the rainy season that’s why our lawmakers...

...5.1 #12 , #34a. and b, #40, 48
#12. Which of the following numbers could be the probability of an event?
1.5, 0, = ,0
#34 More Genetics In Problem 33, we learned that for some diseases, such as sickle-cell anemia, an individual will get the disease only if he or she receives both recessive alleles. This is not always the case. For example, Huntington’s disease only requires one dominant gene for an individual to contract the disease. Suppose that a husband and wife, who...

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