PDHPE Assessment Task 2
The nature of the problem.
Mental health is the state of emotional and social wellbeing. Mental health problems and issues relate to a broad range of conditions that can alter people’s perceptions and emotions. They can range from short term issues such as anxiety and stress through to more extreme clinical problems and psychosis. Most individuals will experience some mental health issues at some time. Examples of mental health problems and illnesses include depression, schizophrenia, personality disorders, major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. These illnesses are not only distressing to themselves, but are also distressing to others and often interfere with their social functioning and capacity to negotiate daily life. They may require treatment or rehabilitation, including hospitalisation.
Extent of the problem (trends)
The scope of mental illness was estimated in 1997 in the National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing as part of the National Mental Health Strategy. It showed a number of trends: * An estimated 20 per cent of the Australian population aged between 16 and 85 had a mental disorder in the 12 months prior to the survey. * One in five Australian adults will suffer a mental illness at some stage in their life. * Women were more likely than men to have had symptoms of anxiety disorders and more likely to have mood disorders such as depression. * 27 per cent of young adults aged 18-24 years had a mental disorder which is the highest prevalence and could be related to high rates of substance abuse * The prevalence of mental disorders decreased with age apart from mental disorders such as dementia and Alzheimer’s. More recent data were obtained by the Australian Bureau of Statistics for the National Health Survey 2004. It showed that: * About 2.1 million of Australians said they suffered from a long-term mental or behavioural problem. * About 2.9 of Australian respondents aged over 18 years said they used medication for mental well-being. This was more common in females than males. According to the AIHW, around 13 per cent of the disease burden in Australia in 2003 was due to mental ill health. It is a national health priority area because of the extent of its impact and because it is possible to reduce this impact through prevention and treatment. The mortality rate for mental health conditions dropped substantially from the peak years of the mid to late 1990’s, and now appears to be plateauing which may be related to increased awareness and treatment. Risk factors and protective factors.
Different mental health problems and illnesses have different risk factors. The risk factors are largely grouped in three main areas which include biological, psychological and environmental/social factors. Biological factors include those which arise from physiology, biochemistry and genetic history for example depression has a clear link to chemical imbalance in the brain. Psychological factors include emotional experiences and interactions with people, the person’s upbringing, and stressful incidents for example depression that results from a tragic family death. Environmental/social factors are those associated with the person’s life situation, such as family relationships. Suicide is a major risk factor involved with mental illness. Many reasons for suicide have been suggested, including depression, mental illness, physical illness, marginalisation of some groups, and social isolation. The protective factors for suicide include: * Effective clinical care for mental, physical and drug abuse problems. * Easy access to a variety of clinical interventions and support groups. * Strong family or friend connections
* Enhancing resilience and skills in problem solving
* Restricted access to means of harming yourself such as prescription medication and firearms. The sociocultural, socioeconomic, and...