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A SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
ON

OPERATION AND MAINTANANCE OF SUBSTATION UPCL

BY

SMITA DOBHAL - (07090105048)

Submitted to the Department of Electrical Engineering
In partial fulfillment of requirements for the award of Degree of Bachelor of Technology
In
Electrical Engineering

Department of
Electrical Engineering
GOVIND BALLABH PANT ENGINEERING COLLEGE
UTTARAKHAND TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY
GHURDAURI,PAURI GARHWAL
UTTARAKHAND, India.
2007-2011

TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION…………………………………………………………………………….3

CERTIFICATE…………………………………………………………………………....…4

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS…………………………………………………………….....…5

CHAPTER 1 (INTRODUCTION)………………………………………………………..….6

1.1 About the Substation....…………………………..……………………………………6

1.2 Power Station………………………………………………………………………….7

1.2.1 Principle of Power Station…………………………………………………….……7

CHAPTER 2 (TRANSFORMER)……………………………………………………..…….9

2.1 Transformer..................................................................................................................9

2.1.1 Basic Principle………………………………………………………………..…….9

2.1.2 Induction law………………………………………………………………….……9

2.1.3 Ideal power equation…………………………………………………………..…..10

2.1.4 Detailed Operation…………………………………………………………………10

2.2 Types………………………………………………………………………………….11

2.2.1 Power Transformer………………………………………………………………. 11

2.2.2 Instrument Transformer…………………………………………………..……….12

2.2.3 Pulse Transformer ………………………………………………………………...13
2.2.4 RF Transformer……………………………………………………………………13

2.2.5 Audio Transformer……………………………………………………...…………13

CHAPTER 3 (RELAYS)……………………………………………………………………14

3.1 Relays………………………………………………………………………...……….14
3.1.1 Basic Design and Operation………… …………………………………...…….….14

3.2 Types…………………………………………………………………………….……15

3.2.1 Latching Relay……………………………………………………..……………....15

3.2.2 Reed Relay ……………………………………………………..………………….16

3.2.3 Solid State Relay……………………………………………………...……………16.

3.2.4 Buchholz Relay………………………………………………………………….…16

3.2.5 Overvoltage Protection Relay………………………………………………….…..16

CHAPTER4(CIRCUIT BREAKER)……………………………………………………..…17

4.1 Circuit Breaker………………………………………………………………..………17

4.1.1 Operation………………………………………………………………………...…17

CHAPTER 5 (PROTECTION OF TRANSFORMER)

5.1 Lightning Arrester………………………………………………………………….....18

5.1.1 Construction ……………………………………………………………………..…18

5.1.2 Maintanace…………………………………………………………………….……18

5.1.3 Testing………………………………………………………………………....……18

5.2 OverCurrent Protection…………………………………………………………......19

5.3 Internal Fault Protection……………………………………………………….……19

5.4 Overvoltage Protection……………………………………………………….….….20

5.4.1 External Elbow Arrester………………………………………………………...…20

5.4.2 External Live Front Arrester……………………………………………………….20

5.4.3 Under Oil Arrester……………………………………………………………..…..20

CHAPTER6 (MAINTANANCE)………………………………………………….………..21

6.1 Infrared Imaging………………………………………………………….………..….21

6.2 Sampling………………………………………………………………………...…....21

6.3 Maintanance………………………………………………………………….……….21

6.4 Testing …………………………………………………………………………….…22

THANKS…………………………………………………………………………...…….23

DECLARATION

We hereby declare that this submission is our own work and that to the best of my knowledge and belief, it contains no material previously published or written by another person nor material which to a substantial extent has been accepted for the award of any other degree of the university or other institute of higher learning, except where due acknowledgement has been made in the text.

Signature :-

Name :-

Roll No:-

Date:-

cERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Project Report entitled “ SPEED CONTROL OF DC SERIES MOTOR BY SCR...
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