Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
In this research paper I will attempt to discuss the causes, symptoms and signs of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome, as well as how it is diagnosed and treated. As someone who is suffering from this disease, I found my research to be very informative and educational, raising awareness for my own understanding, and it is my intention to ensure that this same awareness is translated in my research paper.
What is Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome also known as Stein-Leventhal Syndrome, occurs in 5% to 10% of women and is one of the causes of infertility. PCOS is observed by ultrasound as a number of small cysts on a woman’s ovary, and it’s characterized by a constellation of symptoms, and it is with these symptoms can a physician diagnose this disease. The Symptoms of PCOS is generally seen in young adolescent teens with irregular periods, it can also be diagnosed later on in a woman’s life as infertility may be seen. PCOS is not sensitive to one particular ethnicity, as women with all ethnic backgrounds are affected.
Some signs and symptoms of PCOS may include menstrual disturbances, elevations of the male androgen hormone, delay of normal menstruation, absence of the menstruation cycle for more than three months. All of these symptoms are related to the absence of ovulation. Other symptoms such as, weight gain, insulin resistance, oily skin, dandruff, skin discoloration, high cholesterol levels, elevated blood pressures may be present in patients who were diagnosed with PCOS. Due to the high levels of androgen hormone, such as testosterone, DHEA’s and androstenedione in the blood that are normally present in men and in women, but in greater amounts in men, patients may have a tendency to become obese, develop greater amounts of fat in the waist, hiristism, acne, and male pattern hair loss.
Epidemiology and Mechanism of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
What causes polycystic Ovarian Syndrome? While some geneticists are examining if genetics and gene mutation has some role in the development of PCOS, several studies have shown that PCOS is likely to be the result of both inherited and environmental factors. Woman who are diagnosed with PCOS would have a family history of a mother, sister, grandmother, or aunt with this condition.
What happens to the cells, that cause them to become (poly) cystic? The eggs within the ovary are surrounded by millions of hormone producing cells. These cells along with the egg is considered a follicle. These cells within the ovary is responsible for producing estrogen and progesterone, two important hormone, used in ovulation. However, as the egg matures, because of the absence of these hormones, fluid accumulated within the follicle and can be visualized as a small cyst via a transvaginal ultrasound. These cells, under ultrasound, appears enlarged with several tiny follicles filled with androgens. For a woman to ovulate naturally, the cells in the follicle wall must be producing estrogen which is made from androgen by surrounding cells of the follicle. A normal egg within the follicle will yield the cells of the follicle wall to produce estrogen. Unfortunately, if the cells surrounding the follicle beginning to produce androgen, it will interfere with the normal ovulation cycle and the ovary will then stop producing normal amounts of estrogen required for ovulation, instead it will increase production of androgen. Other known causes of PCOS is due to the body’s defects in elevated blood insulin levels (insulin resistance). Insulin plays a key role in ovulation, it stimulates the ovary to produce androgen. Also excessive levels of LH which is released from the pituitary gland in the brain, prevents stimulation of the ovaries to ovulate.
Insulin is a hormone that helps your body regulate blood sugar levels. When a patient is insulin resistant in order for you to keep your blood sugar...
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