Pc Hardware

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PComputer network
A computer network is simply two or more computers connected together so they can exchange information. A small network can be as simple as two computers linked together by a single cable. This course introduces you to the hardware and software needed for a network, and explains how a small network is different from larger networks and the Internet. Most networks use hubs to connect computers together. A large network may connect thousands of computers and other devices together. A wireless network connects computers without a hub or network cables but use radio communications to send data between each other. Networking allows you to share resources among a group of computer users. If you have a printer connected to your computer, you can share the printer with other computers on the network. Then instead of buying a printer for every computer, all the computers can print across the network to the printer. If you already have access to the Internet from one computer on your network, you can share that Internet connection with other computers on the network. Then all the computers on your network can browse the Web at the same time, using this single Internet connection. Protocol

A standard set of regulations and requirements that allow two electronic items to connect to and exchange information with one another. Protocols regulate data transmission among devices as well as within a network of linked devices through both error control and specifying which data compression method to use. In particular, protocols decide: the method of error checking, how to compact data (if required), how the transmitting device signals that it has concluded sending data, and how the receiving device signals that it has completed receiving data. Among the most common Internet protocols are FTP (File Transfer Protocol), HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), TCP/IP (Transfer Control Protocol/Internet Protocol), and SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol). In other word, a uniform set of rules that enable two devices to connect and transmit data to one another. Protocols determine how data are transmitted between computing devices and over networks. They define issues such as error control and data compression methods. The protocol determines the following: type of error checking to be used data compression method (if any), how the sending device will indicate that it has finished a message and how the receiving device will indicate that it has received the message. Internet protocols include TCP/IP (Transfer Control Protocol/Internet Protocol), HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), FTP (File Transfer Protocol), and SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol).

PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol)
PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) is a protocol for communication between two computers using a serial interface, typically a personal computer connected by phone line to a server. For example, your Internet server provider may provide you with a PPP connection so that the provider's server can respond to your requests, pass them on to the Internet, and forward your requested Internet responses back to you. PPP uses the Internet protocol (IP) (and is designed to handle others). It is sometimes considered a member of the TCP/IP suite of protocols. Relative to the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model, PPP provides layer 2 (data-link layer) services. Essentially, it packages your computer's TCP/IP packets and forwards them to the server where they can actually be put on the Internet. PPP is a full-duplex protocol that can be used on various physical media, including twisted pair or fiber optic lines or satellite transmission. It uses a variation of High Speed Data Link Control (HDLC) for packet encapsulation. PPP is usually preferred over the earlier de facto standard Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) because it can handle synchronous as well as asynchronous communication. PPP can share a line with other users and it has error detection that...
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