What it is: without violating encapsulation, capture and externalize an object's internal state so that the object can be restored to this state later.
The memento pattern is a software design pattern that provides the ability to restore an object to its previous state (undo via rollback). The memento pattern is used by two objects: the originator and a caretaker. The originator is some object that has an internal state. The caretaker is going to do something to the originator, but wants to be able to undo the change. The caretaker first asks the originator for a memento object. Then it does whatever operation (or sequence of operations) it was going to do. To roll back to the state before the operations, it returns the memento object to the originator. The memento object itself is an opaque object (one which the caretaker cannot, or should not, change). When using this pattern, care should be taken if the originator may change other objects or resources - the memento pattern operates on a single object.
CHAIN OF RESPONSIBILITY
What it is: avoid coupling the sender of a request to its receiver by giving more than one object a chance to handle the request. Chain the receiving objects and pass the request along the chain until an object handles it.
In Object Oriented Design, the chain-of-responsibility pattern is a design pattern consisting of a source of command objects and a series of processing objects. Each processing object contains a set of logic that describes the types of command objects that it can handle, and how to pass off those that it cannot handle to the next processing object in the chain. A mechanism also exists for adding new processing objects to the end of this chain. In a variation of the standard chain-of-responsibility model, some handlers may act as dispatchers, capable of sending commands out in a variety of directions, forming a tree of responsibility. In some cases, this can occur recursively, with processing objects calling higher-up processing objects with commands that attempt to solve some smaller part of the problem; in this case recursion continues until the command is processed, or the entire tree has been explored. An XML interpreter (parsed, but not yet executed) might be a fitting example. This pattern promotes the idea of loose coupling, which is considered a programming best practice
What it is: define a one-to-many dependency between objects so that when one object changes state, all its dependents are notified and updated automatically.
The observer pattern (a subset of the publish/subscribe pattern) is a software design pattern in which an object, called the subject, maintains a list of its dependents, called observers, and notifies them automatically of any state changes, usually by calling one of their methods. It is mainly used to implement distributed event handling systems.
What it is: encapsulate a request as an object, thereby letting you parameterize clients with different requests, queue or log requests, and support undoable operations.
In object-oriented programming, the command pattern is a design pattern in which an object is used to represent and encapsulate all the information needed to call a method at a later time. This information includes the method name, the object that owns the method and values for the method parameters. Three terms always associated with the command pattern are client, invoker and receiver. The client instantiates the command object and provides the information required to call the method at a later time. The invoker decides when the method should be called. The receiver is an instance of the class that contains the method's code. Using...
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