Pattern in Nature

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8.3.1

1. Organisms are made of cells that have similar structural characteristics

* Outline the historical development of the cell theory, in particular, the contributions of Robert Hooke and Robert Brown

Date | Name | Event |
1590 | Janssens| World first two lens, compound microscope| 1655| Robert Hooke| First person to use the word ‘cells’Observes these ‘cells’ in cork| 1600’s| Anton van Leeuwanhoek | Improvements in microscopesObserves muscle fibres and bacteria| 1831| Robert Brown | Recognised the nucleus as a regular part of all plant cellsNamed it ‘nucleus’| 1838| Matthias Schleiden | Proposed cell theory with SchwannAll plants are made up of cells| 1839| Theodor Schwann| First to state (alongside Schleiden)All animal are made up of cells| 1858| Rudolf Virchow| First to state ‘ all cells come from pre-existing cells’|

* describe evidence to support the cell theory

modern cell theory
* all organisms are made up of cells
* all organisms arise from pre-existing cells
* cells are the basic units of organisms

Evidence
* observations of many living things through miroscpic analsysis were observed under a compound microscope * observations in membranes and organelles
* observations of cell processes eg. Mitosis

* discuss the significance of technological advances to developments in the cell theory * technological advancements were vital in the development of the cell theory as better microscopes allowed for closer viewing * with the invention of the electron microscope, even the organelles of cells could be broken down and looked into * the invention of dyes allowed more and more objects within cells to be identified all provided more evidence to support the cell theory

* use available evidence to assess the impact of technology, including the development of the microscope on the development of the cell theory

* identify cell organelles seen with current light and electron microscopes

School Light Microscope| Top technology light microscope| Electron microscope| * cell wall * cell membrane * nucleus * vacuole| * all in previous column * golgi body * mitochondria * nucleolus all need staining!| * All in columns so far * Endoplasmic reticulum * Ribosome * Lysosomse * Centrosome * cytoskeleton|

* describe the relationship between the structure of cell organelles and their function

Cell wall| The cell wall is a semi-ermeable membrane, which only allows selected materials to pass throughCell walls are rigid cellulose barriers around plant cells which help hold the plant up as it does not have a skeleton| Nucleus | The nucleous has pores, which allow it to regulate the passage of substances between the cytoplasm and the nucleus It is a small, round organelle that controls the cell and contains genetic information| Endoplasmic reticulum | Long, flattened and stretches around parts of a cell allowing intercellular transportTransport pathways between cell membrane and nuclear membrane| Ribosomes | Have a small rounded shape which increases surface area.Creates DNA to create proteins (linking amonio acids together in sequences)| Golgi body| Flattened membranes without ribosomes attached Processes all cell products and directs them toward the right organelles (packing and sorting cells)| Lysosomes| Fluid filled sacs produced by golgi bodies to digest thingsMay digest old organelles| Mitchondria| In cytoplasm surrounded by a double membrane and have an inner membrane to increase surface area.They undergo cellular respiration to produce energy (ATP)| Chloroplast | Green, round organelles containing chlorophyllCarry out photosynthesisCan act as a protein store. Belong to a group name ‘plactids’| Cytoskeleton| Series of microtubules that hold organelles in place|

* perform a first-hand investigation to gather first-hand information using...
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