Patricia Benner Dr's Novice to Expert Summary

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Dr. Patricia Benner introduced the concept that expert nurses develop skills and patient care expertise through experience. She proposed that Nurses can gain practical knowledge and expertise even without ever learning the theory behind the skills. She also said that through clinical experience is enhanced through continued research

Her 5 levels of nursing experience are as follow;

1. Novice
2. Advanced beginner
3. Competent
4. Proficient
5. Expert

The Beginner starts out with little or no experience. He is taught general universal rules to help perform tasks. The rules are context-free and are independent of any specific duties.

Advanced Beginner
The Advanced beginner has by now gained some experience from actual situations and has begun to recognize recurring meaningful components. Based on experiences, the advanced beginner has by now started to formulate principles to guide their actions and to demonstrate an acceptable level of performance.

The Competent is typically a Nurse on the same job or floor for 2-3 years’ experience. The Competent is now more aware of long term goals. By then he has gained a wider perspective from making their own clinical plans and taking action based on conscious critical thinking.

The Proficient is more holistic in their understanding of situations as whole parts. The Proficient has by now learned to anticipate quick changes in clinical situations and how to quickly alter courses of action.

The expert has gained more background experience and no longer relies on principles or guidelines to make logical connects and act on them. This enables him to function efficiently with a very flexible and intuitive grasp of clinical situations
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