Pathophysiology

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1. The normal fasting glucose level is From 70 to 99 mg/dL . The fasting blood glucose level, which is measured after a fast of 8 hours, is the most commonly used indication of overall glucose homeostasis, largely because disturbing events such as food intake are avoided. It is often the first test done to check for prediabetes (From 100 to 125 mg/dL ) and diabetes (126 mg/dL and above). 2. CB’s fasting blood sugar is 141mg/dl and cholesterol is 225 mg/dl which is higher than the normal range. She is 48 years old woman from the Winnebago Indian tribe. She gained 15 pounds in the last six months. She had number of female infections. She had been very thirsty lately and urinates a lot. Her chief complaint: “my left foot feels weak and numb. I have a hard time pointing my toes up”. This disorder signifies Diabetes Mellitus type 2. 3. The three risk factors for hypertension in this patient’s history is her smoking and drinking beer (alcohol), obesity, and diet rich in fats and refined sugars. 4. The two clinical signs that arouse the most concern are the high Blood pressure 165/100 and weight 203 lbs. 5. Positive bruit auscultated over the right carotid artery signifies carotid bruits characteristic sign of stenosis in the artery. The carotid artery is the main artery in the neck; it brings blood to the head. A bruit indicates a fatty buildup (atherosclerosis) in the artery. Carotid bruit is a sign of higher stroke risk. Abdominal bruit signifies aortic stenosis. The greatest risk associated with an abdominal bruit is that it may indicate the presence of an abdominal aneurysm - which is extremely serious. 6. The significance of this patient’s cold feet and diminished peripheral pulses in the lower extremities is Peripheral diabetic neuropathy-untreated diabetes. Prolonged exposure to high blood sugar can damage delicate nerve fibers, causing diabetic neuropathy. High blood glucose interferes with the ability of the nerves to transmit signals....
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