Pathology (Repair and Heeling)

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pathology
LEARNING OBJECTIVES-BPT

Cell death and Cellular adaptations
At the end of the lesson on cell death and cellular adaptations, the student should be able to:

1) Define cellular adaptations
2) Enumerate the types of cellular adaptations
3) Define hypertrophy and hyperplasia with examples
4) Classify types of atrophy
5) Enumerate the common causes of atrophy
6) Define metaplasia
7) List the various types of metaplasia with examples
8) List the causes of cell injury
9) Name the types of cell injury
10) Give examples of reversible cell injury
11) Define necrosis and name the types of necrosis
12) Define apoptosis
13) List the examples of physiological apoptosis
14) List the examples of pathological apoptosis
15) List the biochemical mechanisms which are affected when a cell is injured

Inflammation

At the end of the lesson on Inflammation, the student should be able to:

1) Define the following terms- acute and chronic inflammation, transmigration, pavementing, chemotaxis, phagocytosis 2) Name the cardinal signs of inflammation
3) Describe the sequence of vascular changes
4) Enumerate the cellular events of acute inflammation
5) List common examples of acute inflammation
6) List common examples of chronic inflammation
7) Describe the histological features of chronic inflammation 8) Differentiate between exudates and transudate
9) Enumerate the outcomes of acute inflammation

Repair and healing

At the end of the lesson on Repair and healing, the student should be able to:

1) List the types of repair
2) Name the cell types with examples
3) List the growth factors and their role in healing
4) Explain healing of a wound by primary intention
5) List the factors influencing wound healing
6) Enumerate the complications of wound healing
7) Explain healing by secondary intention
8) List the types of fractures
9) Explain the mechanism of fracture healing
10) List the complications of fracture healing

Nerve injuries

At the end of the lesson on Nerve injuries, the student should be able to:

1) List the types of nerve injuries
2) Explain briefly the reaction to schwann cell injury
3) Explain briefly the reaction to axonal injury
4) List the causes of nerve injuries
5) Classify mechanical nerve injuries on the basis of its severity with examples 6) List the methods used to evaluate nerve functions following injury

Muscle injuries

At the end of the lesson on Muscle injuries, the student should be able to:

1) List the types of reaction to muscle injury
2) Describe the regeneration of muscle fibres following injury

Neoplasia

At the end of the lesson on Neoplasia, the student should be able to:

1) Define neoplasms
2) List the characteristic features of benign neoplasms
3) List the characteristic features of malignant neoplasms
4) Classify tumors on the basis of histogenesis
5) Define metastasis, describe the pathways of spread okf tumors 6) Describe the clinical manifestations of tumors
7) List the methods commonly used in the laboratory diagnosing of neoplasms

Congenital Abnormalities

At the end of the lesson on Congenital Abnormalities, the student should be able to:

1. Define the terms malformation, deformation and disruption. 2. List the causes of congenital malformations.
3. Describe briefly inheritance pattern of single gene disorders. 4. Describe briefly pathogenesis of congenital cytogenetic disorders 5. Describe briefly the genetic mechanisms, mode of inheritance and clinical features of the following disorders: - Achondroplasia - Osteogenesis imperfecta - Marfan syndrome - Muscular dystrophies 6. Describe briefly the karyotypic abnormality, and clinical features of Down syndrome 7. Describe briefly the developmental abnormality and salient clinical manifestations of Neural Tube Defects Disease of Immune System

At the end of the lesson on diseases of the immune...
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