Patho-Phys Unit 2 Study Guide Usa

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NU 545 Unit 2 Study Guide

Review the anatomy of the brain. (pg. 451)

Which portion is responsible for keeping you awake? (pg. 453)
The epithalamus, pineal gland, functions much like the limbic system by influencing the secretion of melatonin associated with circadian rhythms.

Controlling thought? (pg. 452)
They parietal lobe is involved in sensory association (storage, analysis, and interpretation of stimuli).

Emotions and behavior? (pg. 453)
The hypothalamus is responsible for 2 major functions (1.) maintenance of a constant internal environment (2.) implementation of behavioral patterns. Integrative centers control ANS function, regulation of body temperature, endocrine function, and regulationof emotional expression.

Maintaining balance and posture? (pg. 455)
The cerebellum is responsible for conscious and unconscious muscle synergy and for maintaining balance and posture.

Where is the primary defect in Parkinsons disease and Huntingtons? (pg. 453)
The basal ganglia system is believed to have a fine-tuning effect on motor movements. Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease are associated with defects of the basal ganglia.

What is the function of the CSF? (pg 461)
CSF is a clear, colorless fluid similar to blood plasma and interstitial fluid. The intracranial and spinal cord structures float in CSF and are thereby protected from jolts and blows. CSF also prevents the brain from tugging on meninges, nerve roots, and blood vessels.

Where is CSF produced? (pg. 461)
The choroid plexuses in the lateral, third, and fourth ventricles produce the major portion of CSF. Approximately 600cc of CSF is produced daily, and approximately 125-150cc is circulating in the ventricles and subarachnoid space at any given time.

Where is CSF absorbed? (pg. 461)
CSF is reabsorbed into the venous circulation through the arachnoid villi, primarily located superior to the falx cerebri in the superior sagittal sinus. It is reabsorbed by means of a pressure gradient between the arachnoid villi and the cerebral venous sinuses. The villi function as one way valves directing CSF outflow.

Review blood flow to the brain. (pg. 462)

What is the gate control theory of pain? (pg. 482)
The gate control theory of pain is pain transmission is modulated by a balance of impulses transmitted to the spinal cord by large A-delta and small C fibers. These fibers terminate on inhibitory interneurons in the substantia gelatinosa. Cells in the substantia gelatinosa function as a gate, regulating transmission of impulses to the CNS. Stimulation of nociceptive larger A fibers cause the cells to “close the pain gate” which diminishes pain perception. Small fiber input inhibits cells in the substantia gelatinosa and “opens the pain gate” which enhances pain perception. The CNS through efferent pathways may close, partially close, or open the pain gate.

What are the two types of fibers that transmit the nerve action potentials generated by excitation of any of the nociceptors? (pg. 483)
The nerve action potentials generated by excitation of any of these nociceptors travel along these two fiber types to reach the spinal cord. Nociceptive transmission the the larger A-delta fibers occurs more quickly than it does through C-fibers. A-delta fibers carry well-localized sharp pain sensations and are important in initiating rapid reactions to stimuli. The small unmyelinated C polymodal nociceptors are responsible for the transmission of the diffuse burning or aching sensations that follow.

What is the relationship between epinephrine and body temperature? (pg. 496)
Heat production is initiated by a series of hormonal mechanisms involving the hypothalamus and its connection with the endocrine system. TSH releasing hormone stimulates the anterior pituitary to release TSH, which acts on the thyroid gland to release T4, which then acts on the adrenal medulla to release...
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