Patents Act, 1970
Patents Act, 1970 is designed to protect inventions in respect of manufacture, machine or process of manufacture. On the other hand, the Copyright Act, 1957 is to protect rights of artists, authors, producers of films, computer software owners etc. Patent is an exclusive rights granted to the patent holder, for a limited period, as a reward for creative work based on his private initiative. ‘Creativity’ is accorded the status of ‘property’ which can be bought, sold, licensed or hired like any other commodity. The principle behind patent protection is that creativity will not get encouragement if it cannot be protected from pirating or copying. Major changes have been made by Patents (Amendment) Act, 2002, which was passed on 25-6-2002 aligning it to TRIPS in many aspects. Highlights are - * It provides for uniform protection for 20 years. * Appellate Authority is provided. Appeal against order of Controller and Central Government and application for rectification of register of patents will be to appellate Board and not to High Court. [However, suit for infringement of Patent or revocation of patent will lie with Court only] * Person other than patent holder to obtain marketing approval from regulatory authorities within 3 years before expiration of terms of patent * Provisions for protection of bio-diversities of traditional knowledge * Reversal of burden in case of process patent * Procedural simplifications. The amendments have not yet been brought into force. However, these have been incorporated in this write up at appropriate places. What is a Patent - Section 2(1)(m) merely states ‘Patent’ means a patent granted under this Act’. - - Thus, word ‘patent’ is not defined under the Act, though what can be patented and what cannot has been specified. - - A patent, generally speaking, is a grant from Government, which confers on the grantee for a limited period of time the exclusive privilege of making, selling and using the invention for which...
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