Past Papers

Topics: Neutron, Proton, Atom Pages: 15 (2113 words) Published: February 13, 2013


The nucleus of one of the isotopes of nickel is represented by 60 Ni. 28 Which line in the table correctly describes a neutral atom of this isotope? number of protons A B C D 28 28 60 60 number of neutrons 32 60 28 32 number of orbital electrons 28 28 28 32


A nucleus of bohrium x Bh decays to mendelevium y emissions. bohrium x Bh → dubnium + α y → lawrencium + α

255 Md 101

by a sequence of three α-particle

→ mendelevium 255 Md + α 101 How many neutrons are there in a nucleus of x Bh? y A B C D 267 261 160 154


Which set of radioactive emissions corresponds to the descriptions given in the table headings? high-speed electrons A B C D α α β β high-speed helium nuclei β γ α γ high-frequency photons γ Compiled nd rearrnged by Sjit Chandra Shakya

β γ α



Strontium- 90 (90Sr) is radioactive and emits β-particles. 38 Which equation could represent this nuclear decay? A B C D 90Sr 38 90Sr 38 90Sr 38 90Sr 38 0 → 90Sr + –1 β 39 0 → 90Y + –1 β 39

→ 90Rb + 0 β 37 1 → 90Sr + 0 β 37 1


Protons and neutrons are thought to consist of smaller particles called quarks. The ‘up’ quark has a charge of 2 e : a ‘down’ quark has a charge of – 1 e, where e is the 3 3 –19 C). elementary charge (+1.6 x 10 How many up quarks and down quarks must a proton contain? up quarks A B C D 0 1 1 2 down quarks 3 1 2 1


A nucleus of the nuclide 241Pu decays by emission of a β-particle followed by the emission of an 94 α-particle. Which of the nuclides shown is formed? A 239 93 Np


239 91Pa


237 93 Np


237 92 U


Which two nuclei contain the same number of neutrons? A B C D 12 6C

and and

14 6C 15 8O

16 7N

23 11 Na 32 14 Si

and and

24 12 Mg
32 15 P

Compiled nd rearrnged by Sjit Chandra Shakya



A thin gold foil is bombarded with α-particles as shown.

incident α-particles

gold foil

The results of this experiment provide information about the A B C D binding energy of a gold nucleus. energy levels of electrons in gold atoms. size of a gold nucleus. structure of a gold nucleus.


Isotopes of a given element all have the same A B C D charge / mass ratio. neutron number. nucleon number. proton number.

217 85 At







What is the nuclide X? A
213 85



215 77 Ir


209 82 Pb


217 81Tl

Compiled nd rearrnged by Sjit Chandra Shakya

10 The following represents a sequence of radioactive decays involving two α-particles and one β-particle.


11 A student conducts an experiment using an α-particle source. When considering safety precautions, what can be assumed to be the maximum range of α-particles in air? A B C D between 0 and 5 mm between 5 mm and 200 mm between 200 mm and 500 mm between 500 mm and 1000 mm

12 What is a correct order of magnitude estimate for the diameter of a typical atomic nucleus? A 10–14 m B 10–18 m C 10–22 m D 10–26 m

13 The decay of a nucleus of neptunium is accompanied by the emission of a β-particle and γ-radiation. What effect (if any) does this decay have on the proton number and the nucleon number of the nucleus? proton number A B C D increases decreases unchanged increases nucleon number decreases increases decreases unchanged

14 Radon-220 is radioactive and decays to Polonium-216 with the emission of an α-particle. The equation for the radioactive decay is shown. 220 86 Rn

216 84 Po

+ 4 He 2

How many neutrons are in the radon and polonium nuclei? Rn A B C D 86 134 220 220 Po 84 132 212 216 Compiled nd rearrnged by Sjit Chandra Shakya


15 A detector is exposed to a radioactive source. Fluctuations in the count-rate are observed. What do these fluctuations indicate about radioactive decay? A B C D It is random. It is spontaneous. It is exponential. It is non-linear.

16 The symbol 77 Ge represents a nucleus of germanium that decays to a nucleus of arsenic by 32 emitting a β-particle. What is the symbol of...
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