Passchendaele Is a small village in Belgium and is also the third battle of Ypres. The battle of Passchendaele was the most ineffective battles that took place in World War One. The conditions of this battle led to terrible losses. The losses of this battle only helped wear down the German army. The battle of Passchendaele lasted from July 31 to November 6, 1917. The battle of Passchendaele gave a leverage to Canada to become a separate nation. In this essay I will be writing about the events that lead up to the battle, the strategies and tactics of Passchendaele, and the casualties of the battle.
The battle of Passchendaele took place on the Western Front, for the control of the ridges south and east of the Belgian City of Ypres in West Flanders. In 1917 Willmott states, "The British, with support from the French, began their major assault on the Ypres salient on July 31."(Willmott). The battle of Passchendaele started due to Germans. "The commander of British was convinced of the capture of Messines, meant the army of Germany to collapse so he started to make plans to obtain the necessary breakthrough." (Passchendaele). The overall purpose of the battle was to drive a hole in the German lines, advance to the Belgian coast and capture the German submarine bases there. It was intended to create a decisive corridor in a crucial area of the front, and to take off the pressure for the French.
Secondly, the battle contained of four strategies and tactics. Artillery Bombardment is a strategy that was not only used in Passchendaele but was also used throughout world war one. The aim for this strategy is to wipe out the soldiers in the front line and to break down the trench of the enemies. Following this attack with cannons and huge guns leads to the soldiers on the Britain side to occupy the trench, to gain more land. The second technique they used was called the creeping barrage. The procedure of this strategy started with artillery unit that fired in no-man's-land with a small group of soldiers from the Britain's side behind it. They moved slightly forward towards the enemies side. This was a difficult process for the soldiers because they couldn't be seen by the enemies. This wasn't their best strategy. Next, is the going over the top strategy. This is the most suicidal tactic used in the battle. This tactic was to send the soldiers from the Britain's side literally over the trenches and towards the enemies trenches. Lastly, gas attack in other words mustard gas or phosgene gas is a poisonous gas that was sprayed through the battlefield to poison the troops. The battle main strategy was the trenches to protect them. In fact, Willmott said "In the weeks after the capture of Messines Ridge, the Army had concentrated on strengthening its positions, and it now had three defensive lines, each some 2000 yds (1,800 m) deep." (Willmott). Evans has also stated, " The trenches were made stronger after 1916 they had barbed wire entanglements, bunkers mad out of concrete, machine guns and many more improvements."(Evans). The strategies in this battle worked sometimes and didn't work sometimes.
"Currie and a number of historians included Passchendaele in the list of Canadian victories but there was little glory to be found in Flanders in 1917." (Copp). The battle of Passchendaele produced 13,000 allied casualties; which stacked on top of the 100,000 dead people. The Germans lost about 270,000 men. Evans states, "the battle was costly and obscene because the British lost over 240,000 men and German gained their land that they lost." (Evans). British Empire forces lost about 450,000, including 36,500 Australians and 16,000 Canadians - the latter of which were lost in the intense final assault between October 26 and November 10; 90,000 British and Australian bodies were never identified, and 42,000 never recovered. In the end, the battle lost many soldiers.
In conclusion, the battle of...