On the 14 August 1947, the new Islamic Republic of Pakistan was formed. At midnight the next day India won its freedom from colonial rule, ending nearly 350 years of British presence in India. The British left India divided in two. The two countries were founded on the basis of religion, with Pakistan as an Islamic state and India as a secular one. The partition split the Indian subcontinent in 2 well 3 really counting what is now Bangladesh on religious lines.
The bare details of 1947 and its legacy are blunt. The territorial partition that created modern India and Pakistan involved the internal division of Punjab and Bengal provinces, which - in unimaginable conditions of collapse of authority, flight, and massacre - resulted in the forced movement of 20 million people (Hindus and Sikhs to India and Muslims to Pakistan) and approximately 1.5 million deaths.
Muslims in India under British rule did not want to be part of a Hindu dominated India after Independence. To cut a very long story short they concluded that the North West part of India where Muslims were the majority would become a separate country (along with the area that is now Bangladesh) this country became Pakistan.
Muslims in India were worried that an undivided independent India would be dominated by Hindus, and in effect the British Raj/Rule would be replaced with a Hindu Raj, under which the situation of India's Muslims would be no different. They therefore agitated for a separate Muslim state if British India was to be made independent. The British agreed, and thus partitioned India into 2 independent states, India (majority Hindu) and Pakistan (majority Muslim) in 1947.
The Northern part of India under the British was mainly Muslim, while the south was mainly Hindu. There was ongoing tension and conflict between the two groups, so the country split geographically into (East and West) Pakistan (Muslim) and India (Hindu) and now...