Partition and Scramble of Africa

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It can be refferd to as a period whereby European powers colonised, invaded, occupied and annexed African territories in a very rapid and unprecedented manner, even though there was little interest in Africa up to the 1870's. In fact, up to 1880 Europeans ruled merely 10% of the African continent. Yet within 30 years, by 1914, European nations will have claimed all of Africa except Liberia (a small territory of freed slaves from the United States) and Abyssinia (Ethiopia), which had successfully held off Italian invaders at the battle of Adowa in 1896. The partitioning of Africa was seen as a means of easing tensions between European states which was high in the late 19th century and avoid a full blown out war in Europe over Africa. The Berlin conference was held in 1884-5 as a way of establishing trade and borders of territories. The dominating states at the conference where Germany, Britain, France and Portugal. Africa was divided into 50 colonies without any regard for cultural and linguistic societies that were already established there which has led to conflicts between the independent African states after World War II. There were no representatives for the African states at the conference.

Conservative theory states that imperialism is necessary to maintain existing social order in more developed countries. In addition to secure trade markets, maintain employment and capital exports. Supporters of this theory are Disraeli, Rhodes and Kipling.

Liberal theory states that imperialism is a policy choice and not an inevitable consequence of capitalism. Increase concentration of wealth in the affluent nations leads to under consumption for the majority of people. This can be solved by increase in income of the majority of the population. Supporters of this theory are Hobson and Angell.

Marxist theory states that imperialism arises because of increased concentration of wealth leads to under...
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