Chapter I: Approaches in TEFL
Making It Happen: From Interactive to Participatory Language Teaching, Third Edition Patricia A Richard-Amato
Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed (M. Bergman Ramos, Trans.). New York: Continuum
Wink, J. (1997). Critical pedagogy: Notes from the real world. White Plains, NY: Longman
Contextualizing College ESL Classroom Praxis A Participatory Approach to Effective Instruction Lawrence N. Berlin
In teaching, there are many theoretical approaches that have been developed to promote the students' success in learning new information. In TESOL (Teaching English to Students of Other Languages), there are two main theoretical approaches for the presentation of new English grammar structures or functions to ESL/EFL students: inductive approach and deductive approach. The more traditional of the two theories, is the deductive approach, while the emerging and more modern theory, is the inductive approach. The deductive approach represents a more traditional style of teaching in that the grammatical structures or rules are dictated to the students first (Rivers and Temperley 110). Thus, the students learn the rule and apply it only after they have been introduced to the rule. For example, if the structure to be presented is present perfect, the teacher would begin the lesson by saying, "Today we are going to learn how to use the present perfect structure". Then, the rules of the present perfect structure would be outlined and the students would complete exercises, in a number of ways, to practice using the structure. (Goner, Phillips, and Walters 135) In this approach, the teacher is the center of the class and is responsible for all of the presentation and explanation of the new material. The inductive approach represents a more modern style of teaching where the new grammatical structures or rules are presented to the students in a real language context...