* PRONOUN: a word that replaces a noun without specifying a name. * He was tired.
In this sentence, he is the pronoun, replacing the name of the person who was tired (Jack was tired) or some other identifier (The boy was tired).
* ANTECEDENT: the word to which a pronoun refers.
* Because Jack left in a hurry, he forgot his lunch.
In this sentence, Jack is the antecedent and he is the pronoun.
Types of pronoun
* DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS: the words this, these, that, and those, which replace a noun. * This is unacceptable.
* INDEFINITE PRONOUN: a pronoun that indicates unspecified quantities or degrees. * Most were appalled by the prime minister lies.
* INTENSIVE PRONOUN: a pronoun that emphasizes the word to which it refers. * The stars themselves use this skin cream.
* INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN: a pronoun that initiates a question. * Who called this afternoon?
* OBJECTIVE PERSONAL PRONOUNS: the words me, you, her, him, it, us, and them, used to indicate that the pronoun is functioning as an object. * She was glad that he gave her his trust.
* PERSONAL PRONOUN: personal pronouns all fall into one of three persons, which indicate to whom the pronoun refers. a.) First person: expresses the identity of the speaker.
* I was driving my car.
b.) Second person: addresses the speaker is listener.
* You were driving your car.
c.) Third person: refers to someone who is neither the speaker nor the listener. * They were riding in her car.
* POSSESSIVE PERSONAL PRONOUN: a pronoun that indicates possession or ownership. * She was glad that he gave her its key.
* REFLEXIVE PRONOUN: a pronoun that refers to the subject of the sentence. * The cat keeps itself clean.
* RELATIVE PRONOUN: a pronoun that links one phrase or clause to another. * He would speak to whoever had answers.
* SUBJECTIVE PERSONAL PRONOUN: a pronoun that acts as a subject rather than as an object. * She was glad that he gave her its key.
Noun & Pronoun Cases
* The case of a noun or pronoun is the form it uses to relate to other words in a sentence. There are three cases. * SUBJECT CASE: the form that nouns or pronouns take when they act as subjects. * Ernie loves his cat.
* OBJECT CASE: the form that nouns or pronouns take when they are objects of verbs or prepositions. * The cat loves Ernie.
* DIRECT OBJECT: a noun, pronoun, or noun phrase that receives the action of a verb. The direct object can be found by asking Who or what was affected by the verbs action? * I gave the book to my cousin.
* INDIRECT OBJECT: a noun, pronoun, or noun phrase indirectly affected by the action of a verb. The indirect object can be found by asking To or for whom or what was the verb action carried out? * I gave my cousin the book.
* PREPOSITIONAL OBJECT: a noun, pronoun, or noun phrase that ends a phrase begun by a preposition. * To whom should I submit my application?
* POSSESSIVE CASE: the form that nouns or pronouns take when they act as adjectives. * The ball is mine.
Parts of Speech: VERBS
* VERB: a word that indicates action or a state of being. The predicates of sentences contain verbs. All verbs have five properties: person, number, mood, voice, and tense.
Types of verb
* REGULAR VERB: a verb whose past tense form is made by the addition of d or ed. * walk/walked, jump/jumped, try/tried.
* IRREGULAR VERB: a verb whose past tense form cannot be made with d or ed. * cling/clung, bring/brought, choose/chose/chosen, speak/spoke/spoken. * TRANSITIVE VERB: a verb that requires an object to complete its meaning. * The carpenter makes shelves.
In this sentence, shelves is the object of the verb makes.
* INTRANSITIVE VERB: a verb that cannot take an object.
* She stayed at the bar long after closing time.
* LINKING VERB: a verb that connects a subject to...