Parliamentary and Presidential Form of Government

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INTRODUCTION

Presidential and Parliamentary systems are the two possible forms of Government in a democracy. In England there is the Parliamentary system, and it has worked so well over the years that it has become a model for a number of other countries. In the U.S.A., on the other hand, there is the Presidential form of executive, and it has been working quite successfully in that country. These two forms of government have their own distinctive characteristics, and their own respective merits and demerits. A parliamentary system is a system of government in which the ministers of the executive branch get their democratic legitimacy from the legislature and are accountable to that body, such that the executive and legislative branches are intertwined. In such a system, the head of government acts as de facto chief executive and chief legislator. Parliamentary systems have no clear-cut separation of powers between the executive and legislative branches, which leads to a different set of checks and balances than are found in presidential systems .Parliamentary systems usually have a clear differentiation between the head of government and the head of state, with the former being the prime minister or premier, and the latter often being a figurehead, either a president (elected by popular vote or by the parliament) or a hereditary monarch (often in a constitutional monarchy).

Presidential System Of Government
A presidential system is a system of government where an executive branch is led by a president who serves as both head of state and head of government. The executive branch is the part of government that has sole authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state. In such a system, the executive branch exists separately from the legislature, to which it is not responsible and which it cannot, in normal circumstances, dismiss. In American constitution Article(1): of the constitution vests all legislative powers in the Congress of United States consisting of a Senate and House of Representatives. • Section (1) : Article(2) : of the constitution vest all executive powers with the President of United States of America. • Section(1) : Article (3) : of the constitution vests all judicial powers in the Supreme court. The framers of the constitution were careful not to allow any branch to gain control or usurp the power of others. Further to strengthen the Theory of Separation of Powers and to prevent any arbitrary or despotic exercise of powers by these branches, the founding fathers provided certain inbuilt checks over each other. They are : • If congress wanted to make any law , it needed President's approval to be effective . If he refuses to approve the congress could re-pass the bill with 2/3 majority of the two houses under section(7) :article(1) of the US constitution. This means that even though the constitution had provided for Presidential veto, it's misuse is being checked with this safeguard. Under section(3): article(1): of the constitution ,it empowers the congress the power to impeach high officials including the President . • Section (2): article(2) : it empowers President to make treaties , under concurrence or ratification with a 2/3 majority of senators present . President is also empowered to appoint any high ranking officials like judges of federal court, secretaries with the advice and consent of senate. • The judiciary has also been vested with powers like any laws passed by either congress or by the president can be declared invalid by the court .This is known as "judicial review" , and because of these powers the US judiciary is being regarded as one of the powerful judiciaries in the world . Thus one department has been juxtaposed with each other so as to act as a check on the exercise of powers of each so as to maintain the balance of power. This system is called ' the system of CHECKS AND BALENCES". This is an integral part of...
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