THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, BELGIUM, BOLIVIA, BRAZIL, THE BRITISH EMPIRE, CHINA, CUBA, ECUADOR, FRANCE, GREECE, GUATEMALA, HAITI, THE HEDJAZ, HONDURAS, ITALY, JAPAN, LIBERIA, NICARAGUA, PANAMA, PERU, POLAND, PORTUGAL, ROUMANIA, THE SERB-CROAT-SLOVENE STATE, SIAM, CZECHOSLOVAKIA AND URUGUAY,
Recognising the progress of aerial navigation, and that the establishment of regulations of universal application will be to the interest of all;
Appreciating the necessity of an early agreement upon certain principles and rules calculated to prevent controversy;
Desiring to encourage the peaceful intercourse of nations by means of aerial communications; Have determined for these purposes to conclude a convention, and have appointed as their Plenipotentiariesthe following, reserving the right of substituting others to sign the same convention: Who have agreed as follows:
CHAPTER I: GENERAL PRINCIPLES.
The High Contracting Parties recognise that every Power has complete and exclusive sovereignty over the air space above its territory.
For the purpose of the present Convention, the territory of a State shall be understood as including the national territory, both that of the mother country and of the colonies, and the territorial waters adjacent thereto.
Each contracting State undertakes in time of peace to accord freedom of innocent passage above its territory to the aircraft of the other contracting States, provided that the conditions laid down in the present Convention are observed.
Regulations made by a contracting State as to the admission over its territory of the aircraft of the other contracting States shall be applied without distinction of nationality. Article 3.
Each contracting State is entitled for military reasons or in the interest of public safety to prohibit the aircraft of the other contracting States, under the penalties provided by its legislation and subject to no distinction being made in this respect between its private aircraft and those of the other contracting States from flying over certain areas of its territory.
In that case the locality and the extent of the prohibited areas shall be published and notified beforehand to the other contracting States.
Every aircraft which finds itself above a prohibited area shall, as soon as aware of the fact, give the signal of distress provided in paragraph 17 of Annex D and land as soon as possible outside the prohibited area at one of the nearest aerodromes of the State unlawfully flown over. CHAPTER II: Nationality of Aircraft.
No contracting State shall, except by a special and temporary authorisation, permit the flight above its territory of an aircraft which does not possess the nationality of a contracting State. Article 6.
Aircraft possess the nationality of the State on the register of which they are entered, in accordance with the provisions of Section I (c) of Annex A.
No aircraft shall be entered on the register of one of the contracting States unless it belongs wholly to nationals of such State.
No incorporated company can be registered as the owner of an aircraft unless it possess the nationality of the State in which the aircraft is registered, unless the president or chairman of the company and at least two-thirds of the directors possess such nationality, and unless the company fulfills all other conditions which may be prescribed by the laws of the said State. Article 8.
An aircraft cannot be validly registered in more than one State. Article 9.
The contracting States shall exchange every month among themselves and transmit to the International Commission for Air Navigation referred to in Article 34 copies of registrations and of cancellations of registration which shall have been entered on their official registers during the preceding month....