The preschool years
Authoritarian parenting is based highly on the parents rules and regulations for the child. The child is expected to always do as they are told without discussion. Children brought up by strictly authoritarian parents may show signs of unhappiness, anxiety and lack social skills. Punishment of the child is often physical or aggressive. According to Sim & Ong (2005) as stated in Santrock (2008, p.290) this often leads to physical violence and aggression by the child (Santrock 2008, p.288).
Authoritative parenting does not place such strict rules and expectations onto children as the authoritarian style of parenting. Children of authoritative parents are given rules and boundaries while still having a level of independence. This style of parenting looks at more constructive comments and actions in regards to the child's behaviour. Talking to and understanding the child's behaviour rather than out right punishment. The authoritative parenting style produces well adjusted children who are able to cope and thrive in social situations (Santrock 2008, p.288).
Neglectful parents do not play an active role or show a lot of interest in the upbringing of their children. A child brought up in this manner may feel unimportant and insignificant in their parents lives. A child may feel unworthy and may continue to feel so throughout their life (Santrock 2008, p.288).
Indulgent parents place virtually no restraint on their children allowing them to 'do what they want' (Santrock 2008). Children on indulgent parents often lack respect become egocentric, believing they are more important than others (Santrock 2008, p.288). References
Santrock, J 2007, chapter 9 'Sociomotional development in early childhood', in Life-span development, 11th edn, McGraw-Hill, New York, pp.277-293.
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