Parenting Styles and Child Development|
In recent years, much data has shown that parenting styles exercise a strong influence on child development and behaviour. The initial choice of parenting style creates the foundation for the child’s psychological and social development. Parents can choose from different approaches in raising their child; they can be strict, moderate or lenient. Authoritarian parents are characterized as being demanding and controlling and intolerant of their child’s bad behaviour (Aslam and Sartaj, 2001). On the other hand, authoritative parents are also defined as demanding but are more understanding as regards to the child’s failures and will try setting guidelines rather than strict rules. Furthermore, permissive parents are described as being non-restrictive and imposing few rules on the child. This parenting style is considered as being lenient and “laid back”. As the child matures, he will be influenced by the way he was raised and that will have an impact on his education, social life and character. I would like to investigate the impact of parenting styles on a child’s development. Child Development
A child will behave depending on what he learned in his childhood, in this case by his parents. As the child grows, he behaves accordingly to what he was thought by his parents. If he was thought to show good manners and behave good in front of visitors, that is how he will behave. However, if there wasn’t any emphasis put by the parents to teach the fundamental of behaving, he will do as he pleases. This differs from the child’s psychological development. As Erickson argues, there are eight stages of development throughout life. In his theory, we all go through these stages and every stage there is a development conflict (Mandleco, p.35). The resolution for each conflict can be either have positive outcome or a negative outcome to the psychological development. Successful resolution will develop trust, autonomy, initiative and other features that will help the child in meeting social expectations and comfort (Marsiglia, 2007. However, failure to achieve a positive resolution in a stage will impair the child in his future life and will make it difficult to succeed and develop. Parenting styles
There are three parenting styles, authoritarian, authoritative and permissive. Authoritarian parents are characterized as being punitive, restrictive and intolerant. They tend to shape and control the behaviour of the child by imposing strict rules and harsh disciplinary actions (Baumrind, 1996). Authoritarian parents expect the child to follow their command without asking any questions. Their general response to a question would be “Because I said so”. To this effect, the parents are not responsive and are obedience oriented; they don’t like giving any explanations (Baumrind, 1991). In addition, they are intolerant regarding bad behaviour and the punishments can be very severe. They want their child to excel in all assets of life; they are intolerant towards child’s failures. Also, there isn’t any close attachment to the child’s feelings. Authoritarian parents don’t show much love or emotion to the child and this is one reason why the child never shares a strong bond with the parents.
Authoritative parents have a more democratic style of parenting. Rather than controlling the child’s behaviour, they will guide the child by setting guidelines but they are not written in stone. The parent will share the reasoning behind the rule and will interact with the child (Baumrind, 1991). Instead of looking at the bad behaviour of the child, the authoritarian parent will look at the good behaviour of the child and puts emphasis on that. They do all of this in an affectionate and caring way, instead of punishing the child, they will teach him. Furthermore, the child learns to think on his own and he acquires strong discipline. The...