Running head: PARENTING
Different Parenting Styles on Children
Liberty University Online
Researcher Diana Baumrind, help to identify and describe the four basic parenting styles; authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved parents. Research studies have proven that parenting style has a massive impact on a child's psycho-social development. Parenting styles have different outcomes on a child’s social relationships, school performance, and self-esteem. Authoritarian parents lack emotional nurturing. Permissive parents lack structure, but are better at providing more emotional support. Authoritative parenting is a combination of both authoritarian and permissive. Authoritative parents are better at setting ground rules and specific boundaries and sticking to them while also giving the child the emotional support they need. Uninvolved parenting is when children have parents that tend to neglect them. Uninvolved parents are so wrapped up in themselves and could care less about providing their child with emotional support or focusing on their child’s wants and needs. The authoritative parenting style is the most positive style for children. Consequently, children who have parents that are permissive or uninvolved engage in more high risk criminal behaviors that have a lasting effect on into adulthood. Keywords: Parenting, authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, uninvolved, psycho-social development
“No surprise that there are big differences in the ways we approach parenting - our culture, the situations in our lives, and even the way our parents raised us influence what we think is the right way to parent” (Ritter, 2011). Since the 1920's, health and psychology experts have wondered why children behave the way that they do. They developed an interest in a child’s behavior and the style of parenting used in the home. Diana Baumrind is a psychologist and expert in parenting adopted the four differing parenting styles. She was responsible for the idea that different parents have different parenting styles and have a different way of raising their children. Research has suggested cultural specifics sometimes play a part in parenting strategies in their relation to a child’s behavior problems. Socioeconomic statuses were also found to have an effect on child-rearing practices. Social status can have a major effect on the parental-child relationship which can cause the parents to be a lot less nurturing. This research is to uncover the different parenting styles and the effect it has on a child’s educational, mental, and social development. “Parents are high on control but low on responsiveness. They emphasize rigid behavior standards, place a premium on obedience, and are emotionally distant and unresponsive” (Conger, Simons, Gordon, Leslie 2007). This style of parenting relates to authoritarian parents. These parents attempt to mold their child into what they would like to see them grow up to be. Authoritarian parents try to control their child’s actions by enforcing strict rules, and boundaries. This is the parenting style that allows no room for error or change. These parents lack affection in their style of parenting and are a lot less nurturing. “Children with authoritarian parents tend to do less well in school, are typically less skilled than their peers and have lower self-esteem. Children can appear passive or highly aggressive. The children's wishes have not been listened to nor valued” (Baumrind, 1991). These children lack the social skills needed for healthy relationships, however, they do very well when it comes to academics. Children of authoritarian parents have very good listening skills and are use to obeying rules and always having someone tell them what to do. They do this in order to avoid getting in to trouble. Authoritarian parenting is defined as punitive. Punitive parents tend to use physical punishment as a way of disciplining their child...
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