Parenting Styles

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Parenting Styles

Every parent is different, and every child is raised differently. However, almost all parents tend to raise their children in one parenting style over another. When we consider how our parents raise their children, do we say they know what it takes to properly prepare them for what they will face outside the home?   We can say that as parents we try to bring our children up as best we can. A parenting style is a pattern of behavior that influences child-rearing practices. Parenting style can be very simply defined as how a person parents. Parents are sometimes troubled by the fear that their style of parenting may have negative effects on their children. However, research has consistently shown that there is a broad range of acceptable parenting styles from highly structure to permissive. Some parenting styles are more successful than others in encouraging the child to develop independence and self-control. Those that are most responsive to the child, with much more communication, appear to do best. Parenting styles are influenced by cultural and society standards, the parents’ economic position, childhood, character, and the temperament of the child. Most parents could benefit from knowledge and information of these styles to improve their parenting skills. Parenting styles is a model of parental control developed by Diana Baumrind. During the 1960s, psychologist Baumrind conducted a study on more than 100 preschool age children. Using naturalistic observation, parental interviews and other research methods, she identified four important dimensions of parenting: (1) warmth or nurturance; (2) clarity and consistency of rules; (3) level of expectations, which she also terms as “maturity demands”; and (4) communication between parent and child (Baumrind, 1972). In her research she determined that there are three descriptive model of parental control that differentiates parents on the basis of maintaining control over their children. These are authoritarian parenting (a parent-know-best approach or military like obedience), permissive parenting (provides few behavioral guidelines because parents don’t want to upset their children) and authoritative parenting (which blends a caring tone with structure and consistent limit-setting)..  Further research by also suggested the addition of a fourth parenting, uninvolved (Maccoby & Martin, 1983). Each is described as a style where different levels of parental control, guidance and influence are asserted.   These different levels may have a direct association with a specific child or adolescent behaviors and affecting individual’s personal development and ability to deal with the outside world as adults.   Parenting styles control the outcome of each individual child and can determine how these children will develop into young adults. Authoritarian parenting involves the parents letting the children know what is expected of them without the parents themselves being responsible enough to play their parental roles through follow-ups. They have a high number of rules, and they handle disobedience by yelling, blaming, or threatening. Failure to follow such rules usually results in punishment. Authoritarian parents fail to explain the reasoning behind these rules. If asked to explain, the parent might simply reply, “because I said so.” These parents have high demands and control, but less communication and warmth toward children. This results from being afraid to make decisions and being expected to obey. Children living in authoritarian households don't learn to think for themselves or make good decisions. These children often become rebellious in their teenage years. According to the 1970 British Cohort Study, this study examines the relationship between mothers’ authoritarian attitudes and child behavior using cross sectional data sample survey. Results show a clear linear relationship between the approval of authoritarian childrearing attitudes and the rates of...
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