Jan 4, 2012
Parenting and Education during early childhood
This paper will discuss various forms of caregivers, parenting styles, and early childhood education. Topics covered are: • Evaluate the different types of parenting styles and their influence on development during infancy and early childhood. • Compare and contrast at least two different kinds of caregivers and the positive and/or negative impacts on development during infancy and early childhood. (examples: stay at home parent, daycare, grandparent, and nanny) • Discuss how early childhood education has evolved and its impact on cognitive development in early childhood. Parenting style is a psychological construct, strategies that parents use in the development of their child during infancy and early childhood. There are many differing theories and opinions on the best ways to rear children. Many parents create their own style from a combination of factors in the home, parent upbringing, and surrounding environment. The parent styles are affected by both parents (if both parents are involved with the child) and the child’s temperament; other influences include culture, tradition, and parent upbringing. Despite these challenges in child development, researchers have found links between parenting styles and how these styles affect children. In the early 1960’s psychologist Diana Baumrind conducted a study on 100 pre-school children. Observing the different parent involved in the study, it was identified that there are four dimensions of parenting. The four parenting styles are: The Four Parenting Styles • Authoritarian Parenting: This type of parenting, children are expected to follow strict rules established by the parents. Authoritarian parents fail to explain the reason behind the set rules. Failure to follow these rules results in punishment. If the child asks to explain, the parent then replies to a simple answer “Because I said so”. These Authoritarian Parents have high demands but are non-responsive to their children. Diana Baumrind labels these parent as “obedience and status oriented and expect their orders to obeyed without explanation”. (1991) • Authoritative Parenting: These parents like authoritarian parents establish rules and guidelines that are expected to followed by there children. But this style is more democratic, and parents are responsive to the child(s) and willing to listen to the child(s) questions. If the child fails to meet the expectations, the parents are more nurturing, forgiving, rather than punishing. They are assertive and not restrictive and intrusive; their disciplinary methods are supportive rather than punitive. The parents want their children to be assertive as well as socially responsible, self-regulated, and well cooperative. Diana Baumrind suggests these parents “monitor and impart clear standards for their children’s conduct”. (1991) • Permissive Parenting: Sometimes referred to as indulgent parents, they have very few demands from their children. Permissive parents rarely discipline their children, reason being the parents have low expectations of maturity and self-control. The parents are non-traditional and lenient; they do not require mature behavior and allow considerable self-regulation with confrontation avoidance. Baumrind refers to these parents as “generally nurturing and communicative with their children, often taking the role of friend rather than parent”. (1991) • Uninvolved Parent: This parent style speaks for itself, parent have very few demands, little to no communication, and low responsiveness. These parents usually fulfill the child’s basic needs. They generally detached and in extreme cases reject or neglect the needs of the child or children. The Impact of Parenting Styles
The outcomes of the parenting styles differ; these styles are...