Parental Influences During Childhood

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Children tend to idealize their parents, teenagers tend to criticize their parents, and young adults tend to rationalize the parenting received. From birth to around 8 or 9 years old children usually admire or even worship their parents for what they can do and the power they possess. The teenage years end up with parents getting knocked off their high horse and child rebelling in order to let parents know they are not children anymore. During young adulthood many go through the phase of discovering why they turned out the way they did. The best that parents can provide is a mix of strength and frailty, wisdom and stupidity, good choices and bad.

Many other sociocultural influences on child development come from peers, culture, and of course parents as discussed earlier. Some observations have shown that "gangs, cliques, and peer groups vary in their overall rates of deviance, but if one member of a group engages in problem behavior, a high probability exists that other members will do the same.(J. Abnorm Child Psycol. 2005 June; 33(3):255-256)." Investigating the role of negative peer influences on negligent behavior in minors helps support the hypothesis that having associating with unruly peers greatly increases the probability of wrong doing in at least some kinds of teenagers.

Biological influences such as malnutrition, exposure to chemicals or other substances, and prenatal factors can contribute to the intellectual development of a child. For example when a child is malnourished it can significantly influence IQ scores quite comparable to those who taking an exam wasted. As for prenatal factors it can influence the child, he or she, as soon as it is conceived. As the mitosis stage occurs, cell division, the child itself becomes apart of the mother. There are a plethora of environmental factors that can effect the embryo like alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, and anticonvulsants to control seizure disorders and selected drugs for treatment of severe acne...
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