The Gap Model is a conceptual model especially developed to qualitatively measure service quality. It was developed by parasuraman et al.(1985) based on results from empirical research. Tha gap model identifies five organizational gaps within the process of service design and delivery that cause deficits in quality , leading to dissatisfied customers. The Gap Model locates and maps five generic gaps that apply regardless of the thematic type of service: 1. Between management perceptions of customer expectations and customers actual expectations. 2. Between management perceptions of customer expectations and the by the company stated service standard specification. 3. Between the by the company stated service standard specification and the actual service delivery. 4. Between the by the company stated service standard specification and the company’s external communication. 5. Between the customer’s expectations regarding the service delivered and the customer’s actual service experience. According to parasuraman et al. , customer satisfaction can be expressed in terms of five dimension : tangibles, reliability , responsiveness, assurance, and empathy. • Tangibles: Physical facilities, equipment and appearance of personnel. • Reliability: Ability to perform the promised service dependably and accurately. • Responsiveness: Willingness to help customers and provide prompt service. • Assurance: Knowledge and courtesy of employees and their ability to inspire trust and confidence. • Empathy: Caring, individualized attention the firm provides for its customers.
These dimensions are the basis for the SERVQUAL method ,which is a well known method for measuring the quality of service through accessing customer satisfaction.