Paraonid Personality Disorder

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Paranoid Personality Disorder is a mental disorder characterized by paranoia and a pervasive, long-standing suspiciousness and generalized mistrust of others. Paranoid Personality Disorder is listed in the DSM-III-R and was included in all previous versions of the DSM. One of the earliest descriptions of the Paranoid Personality Disorder comes from a French psychiatrist named Magnan who described a “fragile personality” that showed idiocrastic thinking, hypochondria, undue sensitivity, referential thinking, and suspiciousness (Triebwassser, 2013).

A psychologist named Theodore Millon has proposed five subtypes of Paranoid Personality Disorder. The first is called “Obturate” and is characterized by compulsive features. Patients who fall under this category are often stubborn and unyielding; they are always right, and everyone else must acknowledge that fact or acknowledge the consequences. They are often self-righteous and delight the following rigid rules with zealous fervor. They are highly confident and are usually offended when anyone expresses a contrary opinion. Frantic Paranoids exhibit narcissistic features and greatly overestimate their own importance. They may be pretentious and condescending, seeking to avoid consideration of their own flaws by making grandiose claims and talking about ridiculous fantasies. Their delusions are easily challenged, and their fantasies are coping mechanisms (Falkum, 2009). Querulous Paranoids manifest negative features and are often aggressively argumentative. They find fault with everyone and everything and are constantly complaining and snapping at others. They are resentful and jealous of everything around them and can be sullen and sulky. Insular Paranoids are avoidant, isolating themselves from an untrustworthy world. They are self-sufficient and constantly vigilant, always believing that numerous threats and dangers are lurking just around the corner. They are reclusive and do not enjoy social interaction. Malignant Paranoids are sadistic and are usually hostile in demeanor. They harbor often brutal revenge fantasies and desire to persecute others at whose hands they feel wronged. They are aggressive, desire to dominate others, and are often indifferent and callous towards those whom they hold grudges (Falkum, 2009).

Paranoid Personality Disorder is an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates from the norm of individual’s cultures. The pattern is seen in two or more of the following areas such as cognition, affect, interpersonal functioning, and impulse control. The enduring pattern is inflexible and pervasive across a broad range of personal and social situations. It typically leads to significant distress or impairment in social, work, or other areas of functioning. The pattern is stable and of long duration, and its onset can be traced back to early adulthood or adolescence (Salvatone, 2005). The World Health Organization concluded that in 2009 9.2 million people had been diagnosed with a type of Paranoid Personality Disorder. This accounted for 4.4% of the human population. The researchers found that Paranoid Personality Disorders are more prevalent in males than females. Other risk factors for Paranoid Personality Disorders include being Native American, Black, having low economic status, and being divorced, separated, widowed, or never married (Falkum 2009). There are multiple symptoms associated with Paranoid Personality Disorder. Individuals with Paranoid Personality Disorder are always on guard, believing that others are constantly trying to demean, harm, or threaten them. These generally unfounded beliefs, as well as their habits of blame and distrust, may interfere with their ability to form close relationships. Individuals with the disorder doubt the commitment, loyalty, or trustworthiness of others, believing others are using or deceiving them. They are also reluctant to...
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