The novel Animal Farm, was written by Eric Arthur Blair, commonly known by his pen name, George Orwell. Orwell was born in British India on June 25, 1903. He was an anti-totalitarian, journalist, writer, and soldier in the Spanish Civil war as a member of the Trotskyist socialist party. Animal Farm is an allegory, fable and satire based on the people, politics and happenings during the era of Stalin. In the novel Animal Farm, Napoleon represents Joseph Stalin who was the man who became a tyrant ruler and led many people to their deaths. The devastations committed by Stalin can be compared to the devastations committed by Napoleon in Animal Farm. As an allegory, Orwell uses Napoleon`s dogs, false confessions and the starvation of the hens to represent the Secret Police, the show trials and the starvation of the Ukraine. In the allegorical novel, there are many occurrences in which Orwell associates Napoleon`s dogs to Stalin`s Secret Police. In Animal Farm, the dogs are raised by Napoleon and are used for his own protection, for killing other animals and for causing fear throughout the farm to stop them from arguing against him. The dogs use fear to force animals to work and as a means to control the them. The dogs also kill and intimidate any animal who opposes Napoleon. An Rupert 2
example of the comparison between the dogs and the Secret Police in Animal Farm is shown when Snowball is forced to leave the farm. Napoleon sees Snowball as a threat to his chances of winning the vote of not working on the windmill, so he orders his dogs to chase Snowball off the farm. After this event has passed, Napoleon makes a few changes to the operation of the farm. Many of the animals disagree with his changes and a few began to protest; however, the dogs instill fear in the animals, making them too afraid of them to argue as shown when Orwell wrote, "All four of them sprang to their feet and began speaking at once. But suddenly the dogs sitting round Napoleon let out deep, menacing growls, and the pigs fell silent"(36-37). Another example is when it is announced that the construction of the windmill will be carried out. Squealer explains to the animals why Napoleon had this sudden change of heart and even though some of the animals did not understand some of his speech, the dogs made the animals accept Squealer`s explanation through fear. Napoleon`s dogs utilized their power in order to instill fear within the animals, and coerce them into thinking and acting according to Napoleon`s wishes. The animals became cowardly because they were afraid to say or do something that would go against Napoleon, and thereby become targets to his dogs. Furthermore, the use of Napoleon`s dogs in Animal Farm is the same as the use of the Secret Police in the era of Stalin. In Stalinist Russia, the main perpetrators of his terror were the agents of the Secret Police, who were Stalin`s puppets in oppressing his people. Stalin`s Secret Police caused paranoia to dominate the people of the USSR, "People lived in terror of the sound of a knock on the door or an elevator that opened at their floor"(middlebury.edu). People were always waiting anxiously to see if they were going to be the next victims of the Secret Police. Rupert 3
Like in the novel, the animals had to be careful of their actions and what they said or else they could be killed by Napoleon`s dogs. Stalin`s Secret Police were extremely loyal to him, just like the dogs were very loyal to Napoleon in Animal Farm. Not only were they both loyal to their `leaders`, but the Secret Police and Napoleon`s dogs both used force and fear to control people. Also, the Secret Police, or Napoleon`s dogs, coerced the USSR citizens, or the animals, into supporting them. Furthermore, in Animal Farm Snowball is used as an allegory to represent Leon Trotsky. When Snowball is chased out of the farm, this represents the act of Trotsky leaving the USSR in order to save himself from being executed by...
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