Paragraph on a Memorable Journey in the Train

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Mughal Empire
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

"Mughals" redirects here. For other uses, see Mughal (disambiguation). Mughal Empire
گورکانیان (fa)
مغلیہ سلطنت (ur)|
| 1526–1857| ↓|
|
Flag|
The Mughal Empire during the reign of Aurangzeb c. 1700| Capital| Agra
(1526–1571)
Fatehpur Sikri
(1571–1585)
Lahore
(1585–1598)
Agra
(1598–1648)
Shahjahanabad
(1648–1857)|
Language(s)| Persian (official and court language)[1]
Chagatai Turkic (only initially)
Urdu (later on)|
Religion| Islam
(1526–1582)
Din-e Ilahi
(1582–1605)
Islam
(1605–1857)|
Government| Absolute monarchy,unitary state
with federal structure|
Emperor|
 - 1526–1530| Babur (first)|
 - 1837–1857| Bahadur Shah II (last)|
Historical era| Early modern|
 - Battle of Panipat| 21 April 1526|
 - Indian Rebellion| 10 May 1857|
Area|
 - 1700[a]| 4,500,000 km2(1,737,460 sq mi)|
Population|
 - 1700[a] est.| 150,000,000 |
     Density| 33.3 /km2  (86.3 /sq mi)|
Currency| Rupee|
Preceded by| Succeeded by|
| Timurid dynasty|
| Delhi Sultanate|
| Suri dynasty|
| Adil Shahi dynasty|
| Sultanate of Bengal|
| Deccan Sultanates|
| Maratha Empire| |
Durrani Empire| |
Hotaki dynasty| |
British Raj| |
Hyderabad State| |
Nawab of Carnatic| |
Nawab of Bengal| |
Nawab of Awadh| |
Kingdom of Mysore| |
Bharatpur State| |
|
|
Today part of|  India
 Pakistan
 Bangladesh
 Afghanistan|
1. ^ Area source:[citation needed] Population source:[2]| The Mughal Empire (Persian: شاہانِ مغل‎, Shāhān-e Moġul, self-designation: گورکانیان, Gūrkānī;[3] Urdu: مغلیہ سلطنت, Sultanate-e-Mughliya),[4] or Mogul (alsoMoghul) Empire in traditional English usage, was an imperial power in the Indian subcontinent from about 1526 to 1757 (though it lingered for another century). The Mughal emperors were Muslims and direct descendants of Genghis Khan through Chagatai Khan and Timur. At the height of their power in the late 17th and early 18th centuries, they controlled most of the subcontinent—extending from Bengal in the east to Balochistan in the west, Kashmir in the north to the Kaveri basin in the south. Its population at that time has been estimated as between 110 and 150 million, over a territory of more than 3.2 million square kilometres (1.2 million square miles).[2] The "classic period" of the empire started in 1556 with the accession of Akbar the Great. Under his rule, India enjoyed much cultural and economic progress as well as religious harmony. Akbar was a successful warrior; he also forged martial alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajputkingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but they were subdued by Akbar. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, was the golden age of Mughal architecture and the arts. He erected many splendid monuments, the most famous of which is the legendary Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Pearl Mosque, the Red Fort, the Jama Masjid of Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expansion during the reign of Aurangzeb. During his lifetime, victories in the south expanded the Mughal Empire to more than 1.25 million square miles, ruling over more than 150 million subjects, nearly 1/4th of the world's population, with a combined GDP of over $90 billion.[2][5] By the mid-18th century, the Marathas had ravaged the Mughal provinces from the Deccan to Bengal, and internal dissatisfaction (as well as separatist agendas from the Rajputs, Sikhs, and Jats) arose due to the weakness of the Mughal Empire's administrative and economic systems. In 1739, a weakened Mughal Empire was defeated in the Battle of Karnal by the forces of Nader Shah. Mughal power was severely limited. The last emperor, Bahadur Shah IIhad authority over only the city...
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