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Abstract:
Memory is the ability to store and use information, also the store of what has been learned and remembered. The three-stage model of classifies three types of memories based on how long the memories last: sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory. Sensory memory is the part of the memory that holds information in its original sensory form for a brief period of time, usually about half a second or less. The short- term memory is the part of the memory that temporarily, for two to thirty seconds, stores a limited amount of information before it is either transferred to long-term storage or forgotten. The long- term memory is the part of the memory that has the capacity to store a vast amount of information for as little as thirty seconds and as long as a lifetime.

Memory is the process of maintaining information over time. (Matlin, 2005) Memory is the means by which we draw on our past experiences in order to use this information in the present. (Sternberg, 1999). Memory is the term given to the structures and processes involved in the storage and subsequent retrieval of information. Memory is essential to all our lives. Without a memory of the past, we would not be able to operate in the present or even think about the future. There is not remembering what we did yesterday, what we have done today, or what to plan for tomorrow. (McLeod, S. A. 2007. Study of Memory in Psychology) Memory is simply the ability to store and use information. Until the 1950s, psychologists thought of memory as one thing; either people remembered or didn’t. (R.C. Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1971; Ch.7, pg 269)

Psychologists use the term ecological validity to refer to the extent to which the findings of research studies can be generalized to other settings. Many experiments designed to investigate memory have been criticized for having low ecological validity. First, the laboratory is an artificial situation. People are removed from their normal social...
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