Paleolithic Era

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Paleolithic and Neolithic Vocabulary to Know:
* Paleolithic – 40,000-8,000 BC Old Stone Age, mankind produced

* Neolithic – New Stone Age
1. Comes about at different times at different locations due to ice age ending unevenly 1. Development of organized system of agriculture (replacing hunting gathering community) 1. Domestication of animals

1. Permanent architecture (year round settlements)

* Iconography – pictoral representations

* sculpture in the round – sculptured on all sides – to be viewed from any angles. Detached from a background. * freestanding sculpture vs. relief sculpture
* relief is a three-dimensional image or design who flat background surface is carved away to set off the figure. * Free-standing- carved or molded into 3D (sculptures in the round * additive vs. subtractive sculpture –

* additive is the addition of materials for a sculpture | subtractive is the removal of material from a block * composite creature – a figure combing the body parts of different animals and humans.

* twisted perspective – representation of a figure shown in profile and the body shown frontally

* sympathetic magic = magic based on the assumption that the person or thing can be affected through representing it.

* post and lintel = architectural system of construction, two or more vertical elements (post) supporting a horizontal element (lintel)

* megalith – a large stone used in prehistoric building. * cromlech – circle of megalith stones.
* henge – A circular area enclosed by stones or wood posts – bounded by a ditch or raised embankment. * Heelstone – located in front of the henge | during the summer solstice sun would rise between two of them

* Durrington Walls – contains the remains of Woodhenge the living settlement miles away from Stonehenge.

Ancient Near Eastern Art Vocabulary to Know:
* Mesopotamia – “land between rivers”

* Ziggurat – huge stepped structures with a temple or shrine on top – elevating the builds also protected the shrines from flooding.
* Inanna – goddess of love and war. Summerian.

* Epic of Gilgamesh – A tale of a Sumerian king and his companion who are the sole survivors of a great flood sent by the gods to destroy the world.

* Registers – series of bands or friezes in a pictorial narrative or a motif

* Votive offering – art piece made as an offering to a god or goddess

* Cuneiform – a system of writing used in ancient Mesopotamia.

* Stylus – writing tool used to carve into clay slab tablets.

* Cylinder seal – cylinder engraved with “picture story” used to roll and impression into a two-dimensional surface.

* Stele – a carved stone slab used to mark grave or to commemorate historical events.

* Gudea – ruler of the Guti, built and restored temples created the Votive statue of Gudea. Conqured the Akkadian Empire.

* Hammurabi – ruler in Mesopotamia – noted for his creation of the Hammurabi Code )written legal code that listed lasws and penalties.

* Hieratic scale (or hierarchy of scale) – Use of different size to indicate importance- the larger figure, the greater the importance

* Lamassu –

* Xerxes –

* Darius III –

* Persians –

* Alexander the Great -

Egyptian Art Vocabulary to Know:
* Howard Carter –

* Heb-sed festival –

* Horus – god who guards the interest of Egypt = Sky god | falcon-headed man

* Upper and Lower Egypt –

* Intermediate periods – time between the Old Kingdom and Middle Kingdom in Egypt * ++

* Kemet, deshret –

* twisted perspective – representation of a figure shown in profile and the body shown frontally * Egyptians depicted royalty in twisted persepective but people of lesser rank were represented more naturally.

* Champollion

* Rosetta Stone – stone that...
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