Pakistani Art and Culture

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Pakistani Art and Culture

Lecture I
Culture and Components of Culture
Culture
Culture is the behaviors and beliefs characteristic of a particular social, ethnic, or age group In the 20th century, "culture" emerged as a central concept in anthropology, encompassing the range of human phenomena that cannot be attributed to genetic inheritance. Specifically, the term "culture" in American anthropology had two meanings: the evolved human capacity to classify and represent experiences with symbols, and to act imaginatively and creatively; and (2) the distinct ways that people living in different parts of the world classified and represented their experiences, and acted creatively. Distinctions are currently made between the physical artifacts created by a society, its so-called material culture and everything else,[3] the intangibles such as language, customs, etc. that are the main referent of the term "culture". Components of Culture

Language.
Language is a set of symbols used to assign and communicate meaning. It enables us to name or label the things in our world so we can think and communicate about them. Norms.
Norms are humanly created rules for behavior. Norms are considered as rules and expectations eventually set by a particular society that serve as guides to the behavior of its members. It varies in the terms of the degrees of importance and might be change over a period of time. It is reinforced by sanctions in the forms or rewards and punishments. These are standards accepted by society culturally and serves as obligatory and expected behavior's of the people in different situations in life. Types of norms

* Folkways
* Taboos
* Rituals
* Social Control
* Ideologies, beliefs, and values.
* Physical and verbal reactions.
* Embarrassment and stigma.
Values
Values are anything members of a culture aspire to or hold in high esteem. Values are things to be achieved, things considered of great worth or value. Values are human creations. They are social products. Values can and do become reified. Values can be renegotiated and changed. While people and groups may disagree as to which are most important, Examples * Democracy, liberty, freedom, independence, autonomy, and individual rights. * Capitalism, competition, hard work, self-discipline, and success. * Wealth, prosperity, materialism, and consumerism.

* Equity, fairness, and justice.
* Equality of opportunity.
* Love, compassion, humanitarianism, charity, service, and respect for others. * Tolerance, forgiveness, and acceptance.
* Faith, religion, family, conformity, and tradition.
* Nationalism, patriotism, civic responsibility, and loyalty. * Health, happiness, and life.
* Education, knowledge, science, technology, and innovation. * Complimentary and conflicting values.
A groups values tend to compliment and support one another. They tend to be in agreement and make sense when considered together. A careful look at the values above reveals “sets” of values that seem to go together. However, it is also possible for values to contradict and conflict with each other, especially in complex modern industrial societies. For example, competition and success can be seen as contradictory to humanitarianism, compassion, service and self-sacrafice; while equity and justice contradict forgiveness and conformity and tradition contradict tolerance and acceptance. In fact, many social and political problems can be seen as conflicts between groups emphasizing different values. Beliefs and ideologies

Beliefs are the things members of a culture hold to be true. They are the "facts" accepted by all or most members. Beliefs are not limited to religious statements, but include all the things a people know and accept as true, including common sense everyday knowledge. Like all other cultural elements, beliefs are humanly created and produced. They are collective social agreements produced during...
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