Pakistan Environmental Analysis

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ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF PAKISTAN
COUNTRY ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS

December 2008

CURRENCY EQUIVALENTS (as of 30 December 2008) Currency Unit – Pakistan Rupees PRs 1.00 = $0.013 $1.00 = PRs 79.3

ABBREVIATIONS ADB AJK CEA CET CETP CNG CPS CSP CWS EIA EMS EU FAO FY GDP IEE IPCC IUCN LTSF MDG MTDF NEP NEQS NGO NWFP PEPA PRM PRSP PSDP SMART TA UNDP WS&S WTO WWF — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — Asian Development Bank Azad Jammu & Kashmir Country Environmental Analysis combined effluent treatment combined effluent treatment plant compressed natural gas Country Partnership Strategy Country Strategy and Program continuous water supply environmental impact assessment environmental management system European Union Food and Agriculture Organization fiscal year gross domestic product initial environmental examination Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change World Conservation Union Long-Term Strategic Framework Millennium Development Goal Medium Term Development Framework National Environment Policy of Pakistan National Environmental Quality Standards nongovernment organization North West Frontier Province Pakistan Environmental Protection Act Pakistan Resident Mission Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper public sector development program self-monitoring and reporting tool technical assistance United Nations Development Programme water supply and sanitation World Trade Organization World Wide Fund For Nature

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES Btu (British thermal unit kWh (kilowatt-hour) MAF (million acre-foot) MW (megawatt) — — — — unit of energy 100,000 units of active power per hour unit of volume of water 1,000,000 units of active power

NOTES (i) The fiscal year (FY) of the Government of Pakistan and its agencies ends on 30 June. FY before a calendar year denotes the year in which the fiscal year ends, e.g., FY2008 ends on 30 June 2008. In this report, "$" refers to US dollars.

(ii)

CONTENTS Page EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ................................................................................................................ i I. INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................. 1 A. Purpose ................................................................................................................... 1 B. Methodology ............................................................................................................ 1 II. ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE ............................................................................................. 1 A. Country Profile......................................................................................................... 1 B. The Role of Environment and Natural Resources in Pakistan’s Economy.............. 3 C. Key Environmental Issues and Challenges ............................................................. 5 D. Cost of Environmental Degradation......................................................................... 18 E. Possible Impacts on Poor Communities.................................................................. 19 F. The Additional Environmental Challenge of Emergencies and Natural Disasters: History and Trends .................................................................................................. 20 G. Policy, Legislative, Institutional, and Budgetary Frameworks.................................. 22 III. NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL PRIORITIES FOR ACTION.............................................. 32 A. Past Environmental Record..................................................................................... 32 B. Priorities for Action .................................................................................................. 33 C. Environment-Related Information Needs ................................................................ 34 D. Key Environment Indicators...
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