Country Synthesis Report on Urban Air Quality Management
Discussion Draft, December 2006
© 2006 Asian Development Bank and the Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities (CAI-Asia) Center. All rights reserved. Published 2006 by the Asian Development Bank (ADB). Printed in the Philippines. ADB facilitated this study through its Regional Technical Assistance 6291: Rolling Out Air Quality Management in Asia. The Study was led by the CAI-Asia Secretariat and the information contained in this report was developed by the CAI-Asia Secretariat with inputs by a range of organizations and air quality experts from across Asia and elsewhere. The views expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of ADB or its Board of Governors or the Governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in the publication and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. The term “country” does not imply any judgment by ADB to the legal or other status of any territorial entity.
Table of Contents
Tables and Figures Abbreviations Acknowledgments General Information Geography and Climate Population and Urbanization Economy and Industry Energy Transportation Sources of Air Pollution Status of Air Quality (State) Air Quality Monitoring System Air Quality Data Impacts of Air Pollution Air Quality Management Legal Basis and Mandate Ambient Air Quality Standards Management of Mobile Sources Management of Stationary Sources Management of Area Sources and Dust Public/Nongovernment Participation Conclusion References
iv v vi 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 5 5 8 9 9 11 12 13 13 13 15 16
Tables, Figures, and Boxes
3.1 3.2 4.1 5.1 5.2 Hourly Average Ambient Concentrations of Air Pollutants in Pakistani Cities in 2000 Climatic Conditions for the Four Cycles Annual Costs of Health Impacts of Ambient Particulate Air Pollution (Billion Rs) Proposed Measures to Address Air Pollution in Pakistan in PCAP SO2 Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oil and Coal Power Plants and Corresponding Emissions Limits 5 6 8 10
1.1 1.2 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Primary Energy Supplies in Pakistan by Source, 2004–2005 Number of Registered Motor Vehicles in Pakistan 48-hour Mean of PM10 in Major Pakistani Cities 48-hour Mean of SO2 in Major Pakistani Cities NOx Levels in Major Pakistani Cities Ambient Levels of Nitrogen Dioxide in Diﬀerent Cities in Pakistan O3 Levels in Major Pakistani Cities 2 3 6 6 6 7 7
5.1 Lahore’s Initiatives to Improve Air Quality 11
μg/m3 ADB AQ AQM Btu CAI–Asia CDG CNG CO CO2 ENERCON EPA FERTS GDP GEF IAEA I&M JICA km km2 ktoe LPG MoE NEAP NGO NO2 NOx micrograms per cubic meter Asian Development Bank air quality air quality management British thermal unit Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities City District Governments compressed natural gas Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide National Energy Conservation Centre Environmental Protection Agency Fuel Eﬃciency in Road Transport Sector gross domestic product Global Environment Facility International Atomic Energy Agency inspection and maintenance Japan International Cooperation Agency kilometer square kilometer kilotons of oil equivalent liqueﬁed petroleum gas Ministry of Environment National Environmental Action Plan nongovernment organization Nitrogen dioxide Nitrogen oxide/s NWFP O3 PAH PCAP PEPC PM PM10 PM2.5 ppb ppm RON SO2 SOx SPM SUPARCO toe TSP UNDP UNEP USEPA VOC North–West Frontier Province Ozone polyaromatic hydrocarbons Pakistan Clean Air Programme Pakistan Environment Protection Council particulate matter particulate matter with a diameter not more than 10 microns particulate matter with a diameter not more than 2.5 microns parts per billion parts per million Research Octane Number Sulfur dioxide Sulfur oxide/s Suspended Particulate Matter Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission tons of oil equivalent total suspended particulates United...
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