Pace of Life

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Article:
The Pace of Life in 31 Countries
By Robert V. Levine and Ara Norenzayan
Erin Reilly (student)
AU ID 2449152
Pscy 290
Journal Article Critique 2
Shelley Sikora (tutor)

The Pace of Life in 31 Countries
1. Research Question or Problem:
Yes. The question is clearly stated. The purpose of the study was to, using Hoch’s (1976) theory as a starting point in designing their problem, research variations in the pace of life in different cities and countries, find what characteristics best predict the differences, and finally what are the consequences on the populations of fast or slow paces of life. Further, they diverted from contemporary research on the topic and decided to use a broad range of socioeconomic variables rather than testing one model or theory (Levine & Norenzayan, 1999, p. 178-180). 2. Introduction

Yes. The introduction clearly summarizes prior research and outlines errors in the design of contemporary research on predictors and explanations for the pace of life in different cities and countries. For individual cities, 5 articles are referenced that show a positive correlation between pace of life and walking speed, work speed of postal clerks, and clocks. For cities in the same or different countries, they used 11 references to show that there are differences in the pace of life and predictors that indicate the pace of life in these different cities and countries. Four references were used to show the generic simplistic design that most prior research has used to show predictors and correlations for the pace of life in different cities or countries. Population was used as the paramount descriptor of the pace of life and it was paired with walking speed, work speed, and time pieces to show the differences in the pace of life between countries and cities. Finally, 3 articles were used to reference and show that the sampling techniques used for the cities and countries left a lot to be desired. Further, the articles did not show the personality or characteristics of the city or county and only used population as a basis for finding correlations. Simply put, prior research did not have a large enough sampling size and was limited to only a few countries or cities within a country. Also, the researchers chose to pick the simplest easiest to use data rather than going into different countries and cities and generating their own data (Levine & Norenzayan, 1999, p. 178-179). 3. Methodology:

Interested responsible students and cross-cultural psychologists, nineteen experimenters (11 male, 8 female) were trained to provide standardized data in 31 countries and usually the biggest city was picked in each country. These experimenters could pass as natives and efforts were made to ensure experimenters did not bias the results. Three measures were used and then they were correlated with the statistics on the various community variables. During a warm summer month between 1992 and 1995 walking speed, postal speed, and clock accuracy were studied. Thirty-five male and female pedestrians walking alone and not window shopping were used to measure the speed and time to cross sixty feet in two separate and busy locations within each city. A note and a bill requiring change was passed to a postal worker requesting a stamp be given to the experimenter. Finally, fifteen clocks in banks throughout the city were reported for time accuracy and the phone company was used as the correct time. The predictors on pace of life were economic validity, climate, cultural values, population size, and incidence of coronary heart disease. For economic validity gross domestic product (GDP), Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) and caloric intake (CI) were used. For climate temperature was used. Then, Individualism versus collectivism was used to show cultural values as predictors of the pace of life. The hypotheses presented were; if people have...
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