Unit 8: Psychological Perspectives for Health and Social Care
The Psychodynamic Approach
This approach was related with the psychologist Sigmund Freud. He suggested that the mind is made out of 3 parts the conscious level, preconscious and unconscious level. He believes the unconscious mind is important as many of our memories, feelings and past experiences are locked up in this part. He says we can’t access these contents but they often ‘leak out’ in dreams or by the slip of the tongue whilst talking. According to Freud the conscious mind represents the tip of the iceberg. Most of our experiences and memories are either pre-conscious or unconscious. Unconscious meanings under the surface- hard to reach just like that.There are 6 psychosexual stages: oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital.
Oral stage- it’s when the infant's primary source of interaction occurs through the mouth, so the rooting and sucking reflex is especially important. The primary conflict at this stage is the weaning process-the child must become less dependent upon caretakers. If fixation occurs at this stage, Freud believed the individual would have issues with dependency or aggression. Oral fixation can result in problems with drinking, eating, and smoking or nail biting. Anal stage- Freud believed that the primary focus of the libido was on controlling bladder and bowel movements. The major conflict at this stage is toilet training--the child has to learn to control his or her bodily needs. Developing this control leads to a sense of accomplishment and independence. Phallic stage- the primary focus of the libido is on the genitals. At this age, children also begin to discover the differences between males and females. Latency stage- the libido interests are suppressed. The development of the ego and superego contribute to this period of calm. The stage begins around the time that children enter into school and become more concerned with peer relationships, hobbies and other...
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