Oxygen and Lead Acetate

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Analysis of the Elements present in Organic Compounds
Lab#1

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Name: Mark Morey
Date Done: 2nd February, 2011
Due Date: 9th February, 2011

Title: Analysis of the Elements present in Organic Compounds

Aims: To test the presence of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen and Sulfur in Organic Compounds

Introduction:
Organic Compounds can be considered as any compound containing carbon atoms covalently bonded with other atoms, usually hydrogen. Other atoms may include oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur…etc. They can be found in nature, since “organic” means present in, or derived from, plants and animals.

Materials/ Apparatus:
Bunsen burner, 3 test tubes, test tube holder, dropper, red litmus paper, albumin (cystine), sugar (sucrose), urea, soda lime, 1% sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, 5% lead acetate

Procedure A: Testing for Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen
1. 1g of sugar (sucrose) was placed in a dry test tube. 2. The test tube was heated in an inclined position. 3. Observations were recorded.
4. The test tube was heated until no further change was observed.

Procedure B: Testing for Nitrogen
1. 1g of urea and 1g of soda lime was mixed thoroughly. 2. The mixture was placed in a dry test tube.
3. The test tube was heated gently over a low flame. 4. A strip of moistened strip of red litmus paper was held at the mouth of the test tube.

Procedure C: Testing for Sulfur
1. 0.5g of albumin (egg white) was dissolved in 3ml. of 1%sodium hydroxide in a test tube. 2. The test tube was carefully heated in an inclined position. 3. The solution was gently boiled for one to two minutes. 4. Two or three drops of 5% lead acetate solution were added. 5. 1ml of concentrated hydrochloric acid was carefully added. 6. Observations were recorded.

Results:
|Test |Observation |report | |Heating sugar (sucrose) |Bottom of the sugar starts to melt | | | |White Smoke came out of the test tube | | | |Bubble and moisture heated and melted the upper portion |Moisture- presence of water (H2O) | | |When the sugar have all been melted, the color change from |The blackness or charring of sugar is the presence| | |light brown to almost black |of carbon | | |Large bubble form rings move from the bottom to the mouth of | | | |the test tube | | | |As when the color became darker, the sugar starts to harden, | | | |forming caramel | | |Heating mixture of urea |Smoke came out of the test tube and it had a pungent smell. |Ammonia is the gas erupted from the test tube. It | |and soda lime |When tested with moistened red litmus paper, it turned to blue.|turns to blue when in contact with red litmus | | | |paper. | |Heating solution of |When heated, the solution kept rising higher and higher towards| | |albumin and 1% sodium |the mouth of the...
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