In the everyday life most of us indulge with the online transactions. This is because of the rapid improvement in the e-commerce technologies. Internet technologies have conquered each and every sector of today's businesses. Everything from buying to selling, checking bills online, transferring money into different account, sending and receiving emails and even the education industries are getting online. Even the democracy is not different from this. Online voting system regards to the web based application that could be used to vote from any computer using internet from any part of the world with the convenience of your own comfort. It has been an upmost issue in most of the developed and developing countries to develop an online voting system. The idea behind developing an online voting system was to improve and speed up the process of traditional way of voting. The eligible voters would be able to vote from any part of the school through the wireless. Another big advantage of using online system will be that it would reduce the amount of manpower used to conduct the voting. However it has yet not been the fully implemented method for voting. The development of online voting system is quite a challenging task in reference to the security requirements like privacy and auditability. There are more issues concerning the online voting system that would be discussed in the later chapters of this report. The Online voting system (OVS) also known as e-voting is a term encompassing several different types of voting embracing both electronic means of counting votes. Electronic voting technology can include punched cards, optical scan voting systems and specialized voting kiosks (including self contained direct-recording electronic voting systems or DRE). It can also involve transmission of ballots and votes via telephones, private computer networks, or the internet. Online voting is an electronic way of choosing leaders via a web driven application. The advantage of online voting over the common “queue method” is that the voters have the choice of voting at their own free time and there is reduced congestion. It also minimizes on errors of vote counting. The individual votes are submitted in a database which can be queried to find out who of the aspirants for a given post has the highest number of votes.
In a democracy, the electorate expresses its will through the election of representatives. The selected representatives operate the country, on behalf of the politic body. In order for the representatives to appropriately represent and implement the demands of the people, the elections in which they are elected must be held fairly and results computed accurately. In the last election, held in April 2011, total turnout of votes was just 54%. This is because voters face problems not only during the elections and before the elections as well. Before conducting the elections, there is a formal procedure of voter registration, which is the main challenge for the voters and for the officials of Election Commission. Observing the history we deduce that Polling Systems based on hand rising had just a problem with security (elections were not anonymous). Instead a Paper‐based Polling System has at least three problems (discussed below). The paradigm shift from Hand‐based Polling System to Paperbased Polling System is caused due to population growth whereas, now, time and safety are so important that it has driven a new paradigm shift from Paper to Electronic. There is no defendable reason to stick with Paper Polling System, but there are many security reasons to encourage the use a new Online Voting System in order to draw up polling systems to digital era. In Nigerian’s current Paper Polling System, there are some other troubles as well apart from low turnout of votes, by looking at those problems, it is necessary to build a system which could solve those problems and speed up the election...
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