Overview of the Persian Wars

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The start of the Persian Wars is mostly due to Persia. The Persian Empire was very ambitious, and it became well-known for being the largest empire of its time, as it occupied the entire Middle East, parts of Egypt and Libya, and some areas around the Mediterranean. This ambition was what led the Persians into conflict with the Greeks, initially with the Greek cities on the Anatolian seacoast, after the conquest of Libya in 546 B.C.E. At first, the Greek cities allowed Persian rule, but in 499 B.C.E., the Ionian Revolt began, and a great uprising of Greeks came to pass, with the Greeks eventually failing to fend off the military superiority of the Persian Empire. After this began the Persian Wars, comprised of two main Persian attacks on Greece and Greece’s retaliation, which occurred during the early fifth century B.C.E. The Persian Wars were, simply put, a series of attacks and counter-attacks between the Greeks and Persians as a dispute of land and territory. The turning point in the Persian Wars was the battle of Mycale, in which the Athenians won because the Ionian allies to the Persian Empire deserted the Persians. This ended the Persian invasion of mainland Greece after the Persians decided to focus on issues elsewhere. Athens went on the offensive to take back the Ionian cities. After they took back Sestus, Athens started the Athenian Empire and started on a campaign with allied states to take back more Ionian cities. Shortly after the battles at Cyprus and Salamis in which Cimon, leader of the Athenian Empire, died, and the battles on both sides ended with the signing of the Peace of Callis in 449 B.C.E. Later, Alexander the Great started another raid on the Persians after his father, Philip II, died. Alexander the Great stated that his purpose was revenge for Xerxes of Persia’s attack on Greece. Alexander the Great was a brilliant general, and there’s no telling how immensely powerful his empire would have become had he not died suddenly...
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