Overview of Piaget and Vygotsky

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The Cognitive theory was developed by Piaget. In this theory Piaget insisted that children are not born with instinctive ideas of reality. Piaget viewed development as a process that helped humans relate to their environment. With this he felt that children actively create new ideas based on previous experiences or observation. Piaget believed that we gained knowledge through active exploration that takes the form scheme. A scheme is a cognitive structure or organized patter of action that people construct to interpret their actions. Piaget believed that all schemes, which were forms of understanding that, are created though the operation of inborn intellectual functions. He called these functions organization and adaptation. Organizations are how children systematically combined existing schemes into more complex ones. Adaptation is the process to the demands of your environment, this occurs through to complentary processes, assilmation and accommodation. Assilamtion is a process in how we interpret our new experiences in terms of existing schemes or cognitive structures. Accommodation is the process of modifying existing schemes and making them better to fit new experiences. Thru the development of intelligence and the interaction of the individual and the environment nature provide the complementary process of assilmation and accommodation with make adaptation to the environment possible. As a result to the interactions, humans progress through 4 stages of development. The 4 stages are sensorimotor stage (birth to 2 years) pre operational state (2 to 7 years), the concrete operation stage (7 to 11 years) and the formal operation stage (11 years and beyond). However depending on experiences children might progress at different rates through these stages. As children progress through the sensorimotor period by perceiving and acting on the world, they progress by using their reflexes to adapt to their environment, using symbolic or representational...
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